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Neurophysiologie du langage : apports de la neuro-imagerie et état des connaissances

Abstract : Research on the anatomy of language functions has seen tremendous growth in the last 20 years thanks to the development of various neuroimaging techniques, allowing the study of brain activity when engaged in a particular task. The large number of published studies, focusing on the most specific to the most general linguistic processes, enables the establishment of a neurophysiology of language. Here, after briefly reviewing the limitations of previous methods based on the study of brain lesions, we summarized the main findings that relate brain areas to language functions such as language perception (speaking and reading), core processing (semantic system and syntax) and production (oral and written). The comparison and review of the considerable amount of available results, mainly using functional MRI, but also from other neuroimaging or brain stimulation methods reveals the distribution of language functions in the brain and helps to uncover different functional networks underlying these functions. We attempt to present these results by linking whenever possible each cognitive linguistic function to one or more brain areas. This review of actual knowledge from neuroscience research also helps to address classical issues related to the laterality of language or the specificity of language-related areas. We finally argue about how the latest and future developments should help to further expand our understanding, in both the anatomical localization of these functions and in the characterization of the neurofunctional interactions governing its organization.
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Contributor : Samuel Planton Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Friday, November 4, 2016 - 11:16:00 AM
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Samuel Planton, Jean-François Démonet. Neurophysiologie du langage : apports de la neuro-imagerie et état des connaissances. Revue de Neuropsychologie, Adrsc, 2012, 4 (4), pp.255-266. ⟨10.3917/rne.044.0255⟩. ⟨hal-01392270⟩



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