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Interspecific variation in the relationship between clutch size, laying date and intensity of urbanization in four species of hole-nesting birds.

Marie Vaugoyeau 1, * Frank Adriaensen 2 Alexandr Artemyev 3 Jerzy Bańbura 4 Emilio Barba 5 Clotilde Biard 6 Jacques Blondel 7 Zihad Bouslama 8 Jean-Charles Bouvier 9 Jordi Camprodon 10 Francesco Cecere Anne Charmantier 7 Motti Charter 11, 12 Mariusz Cichoń 13 Camillo Cusimano 14 Dorota Czeszczewik 15 Virginie Demeyrier 7 Blandine Doligez 16 Claire Doutrelant 7 Anna Dubiec 17 Marcel Eens 18 Tapio Eeva 19 Bruno Faivre 20 Peter N. Ferns 21 Jukka T. Forsman 22 Eduardo García-Del-Rey 23 Aya Goldshtein 24 Anne E. Goodenough 25 Andrew G. Gosler 26 Arnaud Grégoire 7 Lars Gustafsson 27 Iga Harnist 17 Ian R. Hartley 28 Philipp Heeb 29 Shelley A. Hinsley 30 Paul Isenmann 7 Staffan Jacob 29 Rimvydas Juškaitis 31 Erkki Korpimäki 19 Indrikis Krams 32 Toni Laaksonen 19 Marcel M. Lambrechts 7 Bernard Leclercq Esa Lehikoinen 19 Olli Loukola 22 Arne Lundberg 27 Mark C. Mainwaring 28 Raivo Mänd 32 Bruno Massa 14 Tomasz D. Mazgajski 17 Santiago Merino 33 Cezary Mitrus 34 Mikko Mönkkönen 7, 35 Xavier Morin 7 Ruedi G. Nager 36 Sven G. Nilsson 37 Ana C. Norte 38 Markku Orell 22 Philippe Perret 7 Christopher M. Perrins 26 Carla S. Pimentel 39 Rianne Pinxten 21, 40 Heinz Richner 41 Hugo Robles 42, 2 Seppo Rytkönen 22 Juan Carlos Senar 43 Janne T. Seppänen 22 Luis Pascoal da Silva 38 Tore Slagsvold 44 Tapio Solonen 45 Alberto Sorace 46 Martyn J. Stenning 47 Piotr Tryjanowski 48 Mikael von Numers 49 Wieslaw Walankiewicz 15 Anders Pape Møller 1 
* Corresponding author
16 Evolution, adaptation et comportement
Département écologie évolutive [LBBE]
Abstract : The increase in size of human populations in urban and agricultural areas has resulted in considerable habitat conversion globally. Such anthropogenic areas have specific environmental characteristics, which influence the physiology, life history, and population dynamics of plants and animals. For example, the date of bud burst is advanced in urban compared to nearby natural areas. In some birds, breeding success is determined by synchrony between timing of breeding and peak food abundance. Pertinently, caterpillars are an important food source for the nestlings of many bird species, and their abundance is influenced by environmental factors such as temperature and date of bud burst. Higher temperatures and advanced date of bud burst in urban areas could advance peak caterpillar abundance and thus affect breeding phenology of birds. In order to test whether laying date advance and clutch sizes decrease with the intensity of urbanization, we analyzed the timing of breeding and clutch size in relation to intensity of urbanization as a measure of human impact in 199 nest box plots across Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East (i.e., the Western Palearctic) for four species of hole-nesters: blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), great tits (Parus major), collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis), and pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca). Meanwhile, we estimated the intensity of urbanization as the density of buildings surrounding study plots measured on orthophotographs. For the four study species, the intensity of urbanization was not correlated with laying date. Clutch size in blue and great tits does not seem affected by the intensity of urbanization, while in collared and pied flycatchers it decreased with increasing intensity of urbanization. This is the first large-scale study showing a species-specific major correlation between intensity of urbanization and the ecology of breeding. The underlying mechanisms for the relationships between life history and urbanization remain to be determined. We propose that effects of food abundance or quality, temperature, noise, pollution, or disturbance by humans may on their own or in combination affect laying date and/or clutch size.
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Marie Vaugoyeau, Frank Adriaensen, Alexandr Artemyev, Jerzy Bańbura, Emilio Barba, et al.. Interspecific variation in the relationship between clutch size, laying date and intensity of urbanization in four species of hole-nesting birds.. Ecology and Evolution, Wiley Open Access, 2016, 6 (16), pp.5907-5920. ⟨10.1002/ece3.2335⟩. ⟨hal-01386419⟩



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