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The effects of video viewing on preservice teachers’ classroom activity : normative versus developmental approach

Abstract : Although assessing the effects of video use on teacher education and professional development is inherently complex, most studies underline the many benefits of video viewing (Gaudin & Chaliès, in press). Among the most significant benefits are heightened motivation, optimized selective attention and knowledge-based reasoning, and improved classroom practices. Paradoxically, little empirical evidence has been presented on how video use benefits actual teaching activity (Seidel et al., 2011; Tripp & Rich, 2012). Some studies have nevertheless shown that teachers redeploy in the classroom capabilities first developed in video clips viewed in class (e.g., Prusak et al., 2010; Sherin & van Es, 2009). Most of these studies have inferred these effects from written or oral comments of teachers and not from the analysis of their actual teaching activity. The purpose of this communication is to present the circumstances in which an epistemic and transformative teacher education program using video viewing can produce effects on teachers’ actual teaching activity. This program articulates research, education and design in the conceptual framework of work analysis (Durand, 2013) which gives primacy to the actor’ actual activity. Based on this framework, this program consists in three iterative phases: i) the modeling of typical features of actual teaching activity on the everyday job (e.g. beliefs, concerns, professional gestures); ii) the design and implementation of educational devices and situations; iii) the study of their effects on the development of the activity of the trainees and trainers. Thereby, precious data is collected for the "design-in-use" of these devices and situations aiming at increasing the teaching efficiency of the trainees. To illustrate the third phase of this programme, we present here two case studies conducted with trainee teachers during their induction year, alternatively working and training with video-based devices. Using the same iterative method but two different theoretical approaches, we studied the effects generated on trainees’ actual teaching activity by i) the autonomous use of a digital environment [Ria, 2010 : http://neo.ens-] (developmental approach of enaction : Durand, 2008; Varela, 1989); ii) a guided educational device (normative approach of ostensive teaching : Chaliès et al., 2012; Wittgenstein, 2004). We used video observation and self-confrontation interviews to understand the joint evolutions of the educational and professional activities. In the two cases, the findings show an increase of objective and subjective efficacy in teaching activity that is linked to learning experiences lived during the video-based educational situations. The learning processes highlighted permit us to reconsider and precise the ways to use video materials in the design of performant educational devices, especially by developing adapted instructional scenarios. The discussion of these results raises three issues. First, it deals with the nature of the data regarding the assessment of the effects of video viewing on the actual teaching activity (e.g. written commentaries, transcripts of trainee discussions, interviews). Then, it points out the limit of reducing the analysis of these effects to teaching activity in classroom (e.g., planning, discussion with colleagues). Finally, it considers the opportunity to extend the analysis to the activity of students.
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Simon Flandin, Cyrille Gaudin. The effects of video viewing on preservice teachers’ classroom activity : normative versus developmental approach. EARLI SIG 11 Conference "Teaching and Teacher Education", Jun 2014, Frauenchiemsee, Germany. ⟨10.13140/RG.2.1.3497.7520⟩. ⟨hal-01352251⟩



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