Microsatellite markers and cytoplasmic sequences reveal contrasting pattern of spatial genetic structure in the red algae species complex Mazzaella laminarioides

Abstract : Mazzaella laminarioides (Bory) is a common haploid-diploid red alga that forms dense beds. This alga has a wide distribution range, covering 3,500km of the Chilean coast, but is restricted to high rocky intertidal zones. Recently, the existence of three highly divergent genetic lineages was demonstrated for this taxon, and two cytoplasmic markers were used to determine that these lineages are distributed in strict parapatry. Here, using 454 next-generation sequencing, we developed polymorphic microsatellite loci that cross amplify in all three cytoplasmic lineages. Six sites (i.e. two sites within each lineage) were analyzed using nine microsatellite loci. Our work shows that, although substantial cytoplasmic differentiation occurs within M. laminarioides, the microsatellite loci did not retrieved three nuclear genetic clusters as expected. Indeed,while the northernmost and southernmost cytoplasmic lineages form two strongly divergent nuclear groups characterized by diagnostic alleles, the third cytoplasmic lineage did not form a third nuclear independent group. It is possible that inter-lineage gene exchange has occurred, particularly at sites along the contact zone between the different cytoplasmic lineages. This nuclear-cytoplasmic incongruence in M. laminarioides could be explained by incomplete lineage sorting of the nuclear genes or asymmetric introgressive hybridization between the lineages. Finally, highly significant heterozygote deficiencies (suggesting occurrence of intergametophytic selfing) were observed in the three small northernmost sites while the large southernmost sites generally approached panmixia.
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Marie-Laure Guillemin, Myriam Valero, Kennia Morales Collio, Ramona Pinochet Sanchez, Miguel Henríquez Espinosa, et al.. Microsatellite markers and cytoplasmic sequences reveal contrasting pattern of spatial genetic structure in the red algae species complex Mazzaella laminarioides. Journal of Phycology, Wiley, 2016, ⟨10.1111/jpy.12440⟩. ⟨hal-01333426⟩

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