Two-dimensional Navier–Stokes simulation of breaking waves

Abstract : Numerical simulations describing plunging breakers including the splash-up phenomenon are presented. The motion is governed by the classical, incompressible, two-dimensional Navier–Stokes equation. The numerical modeling of this two-phase flow is based on a piecewise linear version of the volume of fluid method. Capillary effects are taken into account such as a nonisotropic stress tensor concentrated near the interface. Results concerning the time evolution of liquid–gas interface and velocity field are given for short waves, showing how an initial steep wave undergoes breaking and successive splash-up cycles. Breaking processes including overturning, splash-up and gas entrainment, and breaking induced vortex-like motion beneath the surface and energy dissipation, are presented and discussed. It is found that strong vorticities are generated during the breaking process, and that more than 80% of the total pre-breaking wave energy is dissipated within three wave periods. The numerical results are compared with some laboratory measurements, and a favorable agreement is found.
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Gang Chen, Christian Kharif, Stéphane Zaleski, Jie Li. Two-dimensional Navier–Stokes simulation of breaking waves. Physics of Fluids, American Institute of Physics, 1999, 11 (1), pp.121-133. ⟨10.1063/1.869907⟩. ⟨hal-01307123⟩

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