Au-delà de l'usage : du public pour penser les TIC

Abstract : While the information and communication technologies (ICTS) have gradually penetrated all the fields of social life, shall the analysis of their reception only lean on the notions of « use » and « user » ? A notional shift in the meaning of the words had already occured when, at the end of the 1970’s, the advent of ICTS introduced the idea that « use » was their essential feature, so that the figure of the « user » would enrich and then replace the notion of consumer. Choosing the notion of « use » upon the notion of « consummation » meant to concentrate the reception on the ICTS addressee’s action. Individual and collective practices have emerged with the development of participatory web. Nowadays, ICTS are aimed to individuals as well as to groups based on the features of online networks. These technologies hybridizes individualism and collective behavior to such a point that researchers struggle to establish a model for it through the notion of « use ». From then on, the notions of « public » and « audience », formerly designed for mass media studies on the idea of the relation to the group, seems to win back some relevance. However, its need to be recontextualized and redefined from the standpoint of Max Weber’s dichotomy communalization / sociation, and articulated to the notions of social capital and friendship which govern the actions and representations in online social networks.
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Pierre Morelli. Au-delà de l'usage : du public pour penser les TIC. Pierre Morelli; Nathalie Pignard-Cheynel; Didier Baltazart. Publics et TIC. Confrontations conceptuelles et recherches empiriques, 31, PUN-Éditions universitaires de Lorraine, pp.25-43, 2016, 978-2-8143-0265-5. ⟨hal-01292287⟩

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