Herbicides pendant la guerre du Việt Nam : irréversibilité des dégâts sur l’environnement ? Exemple de la vallée d’A Lưới

Abstract : During the Việt Nam war, the American army sprayed more than 70 million liters of herbicides. The purpose was to destroy the crops of the enemy and to eliminate the leaves of the canopy, under which he hid. Some authors assert that these chemical products left “indelible marks on the landscapes” (Ramade, 1990, translated). Don’t they forget that the healing of ecosystems is a long-term process? Are the damages really irreversible? Our paper will be based on maps of landscape dynamics, during and after the war, and on soils surveys. Herbicides contaminated soils. Dioxin is the most persistent compound. Yet, in the areas of the A Lưới valley, which were affected by aerial sprayings, its rates are now “acceptable”; measures are still worrying in the former bases of Special Forces, where herbicides were stored (Hatfield Consultants LTD et 10-80 Committee, 2000). Contaminated, the soils, especially their chemical properties (Hoàng Van Huây et Nguyên Xuân Cu, 1984), were also modified. Nevertheless, the impacts are identical to those, which resulted from all forest destructions, whatever the cause. The soil sterilization, emphasized by the partisans of the impossible vegetal reconquest, is questioned. The impact on the vegetation can’t be denied but it should be put into perspective. The spraying lines are no longer visible in the 2000’s landscapes. In fact, the destruction of the vegetation varied, particularly according to the repetition of sprayings and the affected plant formation. Moreover, the post-war practices aggravated the strict impact of the defoliation.
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Submitted on : Saturday, September 19, 2015 - 4:46:36 PM
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Amélie Robert, Jean Louis Yengué. Herbicides pendant la guerre du Việt Nam : irréversibilité des dégâts sur l’environnement ? Exemple de la vallée d’A Lưới. 5e Congrès Asie & Pacifique, GIS Asie et Réseau Asie & Pacifique (CNRS), Sep 2015, Paris, France. ⟨hal-01202302⟩

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