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Rapport final Projet ANR- 09-VILL-0007 VegDUD Programme Villes Durables 2009

Abstract : Dense city, green city, realistic gamble? The role of vegetation in sustainable urban development: an approach by the climatic, hydrologic, energy and ambiances stakes. Urban sprawl increases the artificial surfaces to the detriment of natural ones. However, with the increase of urban population it is necessary to find compromises, and introducing more vegetation in the dense city is promoted as one of the possible solutions for its sustainable development. New greening techniques are proposed, in particular on buildings. The environmental impacts of urban vegetation are qualitatively known but few quantitative results are available. So, it is not known if these new green surfaces can be good replacement for more traditional ones: trees, lawns, gardens… It is also necessary to assess the role of these new devices in the urban practices and perceptions. The VegDUD project provides an interdisciplinary assessment of several greening techniques planned in the dense city. This assessment focuses on the stakes related to climate, hydrology, energy and ambiances. It is applied to the city of Nantes but also it tackles cases in other cities. Which vegetation for tomorrow’s city ? Surveys, experimentation, modelling and forward-looking assessment. After a survey about the novel and traditional forms and practices of urban vegetation, the research focused on 5 device families: green roofs and walls; grassy surfaces (opposed to mineral ones); sustainable urban drainage systems using vegetation; trees; above ground plants (opposed to open-ground ones). The numerical models applied to urban climate, hydrology, acoustics and buildings energy simulation have been enriched to represent these devices. In parallel, a district of Nantes has hosted continuous measurements and two experimental campaigns. Scale experimentations were also been carried out. Techniques based on remote sensing and a Geographical Information System have been developed to rapidly acquire and effectively manage a detailed inventory of vegetation presence at city scale. With the models, urban development scenarios based on various building and vegetation density hypotheses were simulated ant the computed impacts on microclimate, hydrology, energy and comfort were compared. The performances of the greening solutions that are expected to meet part of the major stakes the cities will encounter were assessed. Concerning microclimate and summer comfort, trees are best performing, while when assessing summer indoor comfort, green walls that also provide an effect on outdoor comfort in case of densely built-up areas, are the most interesting. For highly insulated buildings, the impact of green walls and roofs on the building energy consumption and indoor comfort is weak, especially compared with the water needed to irrigate them. The exploratory VegDUD project, coordinated by the Research Institute on Urban Sciences and Techniques (IRSTV, FR CNRS 2488, Marjorie Musy) began on January 1st 2010 for 4 years and 3 months. It received a grant of 1.550.000 € from ANR for a global cost of about 6.500.000 €.
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Marjorie Musy, Emmanuel Bozonnet, Xavier Briottet, Caroline Gutleben, Jean-Pierre Lagouarde, et al.. Rapport final Projet ANR- 09-VILL-0007 VegDUD Programme Villes Durables 2009. [Rapport de recherche] IRSTV FR CNRS 2488. 2014. ⟨hal-01188804⟩

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