Fabriques du métissage au Mexique ou l'autre métissage

Abstract : The construction of new nations, in Latin America, involved reflexions on the definition of the national identities. This aided to reconcile the reality of the "mestizaje" with the attribution, inherited the colonial time, of various “qualities” to the individuals and the groups (“Spanish”, “Indian”, “black”, “mulatto”, etc.). It was also confronted with the racist connotations contained in the ideas of progress and modernity, at the beginning of the XIX century, and thus complicating the difficulty in legitimizing its own "mestizaje". We tackled these questions starting from the empirical examination of two contexts in Mexico, that of the State and the town of Veracruz, and that of Costa Chica, on the Pacific coast in the states of Oaxaca and Guerrero. The common point of these two case studies is the comprehension of "mestizaje", a culture strongly associated with the Mexican national identity, starting from the African presence, which was important from the beginning of the colonization but not found in the “traditional” designs of the national "mestizaje". This analysis enables us to highlight various ways of incorporating the African origin populations with the nation. One then sees how the local configurations are articulated with the global speech to privilege one dimension or facet of the afro identification more than the other; be it cultural, social, or political. This is what we call “the other mestizaje”.
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Odile Hoffmann, Christian Rinaudo. Fabriques du métissage au Mexique ou l'autre métissage. Du transfert culturel au métissage. Concepts, acteurs, pratiques, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, pp.523-543, 2015, 978-2-7535-3503-9. ⟨http://www.pur-editions.fr/detail.php?idOuv=3753#⟩. ⟨hal-01169926⟩

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