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The HIV proteins Tat and Nef promote human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell senescence and alter osteoblastic differentiation

Abstract : To maintain bone mass turnover and bone mineral density (BMD), bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are constantly recruited and subsequently differentiated into osteo-blasts. HIV-infected patients present lower BMD than non-HIV infected individuals and a higher prevalence of osteopenia/ osteoporosis. In antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive patients, encoded HIV proteins represent pathogenic candidates. They are released by infected cells within BM and can impact on neighbouring cells. In this study, we tested whether HIV proteins Tat and/or Nef could induce senescence of human BM-MSCs and reduce their capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts. When compared to nontreated cells, MSCs chronically treated with Tat and/or Nef up to 30 days reduced their proliferative activity and underwent early senescence, associated with increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. The antioxidant molecule N-acetyl-cysteine had no or minimal effects on Tat-or Nef-induced senescence. Tat but not Nef induced an early increase in NF-jB activity and cytokine/chemokine secretion. Tat-induced effects were prevented by the NF-jB inhibitor parthenolide, indicating that Tat triggered senescence via NF-jB activation leading to oxidative stress. Otherwise, Nef-but not Tat-treated cells displayed early inhibition of autophagy. Rapamycin, an autophagy inducer, reversed Nef-induced senescence and oxida-tive stress. Moreover, Tat+Nef had cumulative effects. Finally, Tat and/or Nef decreased the MSC potential of osteoblastic differentiation. In conclusion, our in vitro data show that Tat and Nef could reduce the number of available precursors by inducing MSC senescence, through either enhanced inflammation or reduced autophagy. These results offer new insights into the pathophys-iological mechanisms of decreased BMD in HIV-infected patients.
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Carine Beaupere, Marie Garcia, Jerome Larghero, Bruno Fève, Jacqueline Capeau, et al.. The HIV proteins Tat and Nef promote human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell senescence and alter osteoblastic differentiation. Aging Cell, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2015, 14 (4), pp.534-546 ⟨10.1111/acel.12308⟩. ⟨hal-01143474⟩

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