How many species in the Southern Ocean? Towards a dynamic inventory of the Antarctic marine species.

Claude de Broyer 1 Bruno Danis 1, * Louise Allcock 2 Martin Angel 3 Claudia Arango 4 Tom Artois David Barnes Marthan Bester 5 Kasia Blachowiak-Samolyk Magda Błażewicz-Paszkowycz Jens Bohn Nunes Brandão Simone Angelika Brandt 6 Bruno David 7 Miguel de Salas Tim Deprez Marc Eléaume 8 Christian Emig 9 Daphne Fautin Kai-Horst George David Gillan Andrew Gooday 10 Russ Hopcroft Michel Jangoux Dorte Janussen 11 Philippe Koubbi 8 Juliana Kouwenberg 12 Piotr Kuklinski 13, 14 Ryszard Ligowski Dhugal Lindsay Katrin Linse 15 Matt Longshaw Pablo López-González 16 Ute Mühlenhardt-Siegel Tomas Munilla 17 Birger Neuhaus 18 Jon Norenburg Catherine Ozouf-Costaz 19 Evgeny Pakhomov L. Peña-Cantero Álvaro William Perrin Victor Petryashov Uwe Piatkowski 20 Annelies Pierrot-Bults Claude Razouls Anna Rocka José Saiz-Salinas Luitfried Salvini-Plawen Victor Scarabino Stefano Schiaparelli 21 Michael Schrödl Enrico Schwabe Fiona Scott Jacek Sicinski Volker Siegel Igor Smirnov Sven Thatje 22 Andrei Utevsky Ann Vanreusel 23 Christian Wiencke Eric Woehler 24 Krzysztof Zdzitowiecki Patrick Martin 25
Abstract : The IPY sister-projects CAML and SCAR-MarBIN provided a timely opportunity, a strong collaborative framework and an appropriate momentum to attempt assessing the “Known, Unknown and Unknowable” of Antarctic marine biodiversity. To allow assessing the known biodiversity, SCAR-MarBIN “Register of Antarctic Marine Species (RAMS)” was compiled and published by a panel of 64 taxonomic experts. Thanks to this outstanding expertise mobilized for the first time, an accurate list of more than 8100 valid species was compiled and an up-to-date systematic classification comprising more than 16,800 taxon names was established. This taxonomic information is progressively and systematically completed by species occurrence data, provided by literature, taxonomic and biogeographic databases, new data from CAML and other cruises, and museum collections. RAMS primary role was to establish a benchmark of the present taxonomic knowledge of the Southern Ocean biodiversity, particularly important in the context of the growing realization of potential impacts of the global change on Antarctic ecosystems. This, in turn, allowed detecting gaps in knowledge, taxonomic treatment and coverage, and estimating the importance of the taxonomic impediment, as well as the needs for more complete and efficient taxonomic tools. A second, but not less important, role of RAMS was to contribute to the “taxonomic backbone” of the SCAR-MarBIN, OBIS and GBIF networks, to establish a dynamic information system on Antarctic marine biodiversity for the future. The unknown part of the Southern Ocean biodiversity was approached by pointing out what remains to be explored and described in terms of geographical locations and bathymetric zones, habitats, or size classes of organisms. The growing importance of cryptic species is stressed, as they are more and more often detected by molecular studies in several taxa. Relying on RAMS results and on some case studies of particular model groups, the question of the potential number of species that remains to be discovered in the Southern Ocean is discussed. In terms of taxonomic inputs to the census of Southern Ocean biodiversity, the current rate of progress in inventorying the Antarctic marine species as well as the state of taxonomic resources and capacity were assessed. Different ways of improving the taxonomic inputs are suggested.
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Claude de Broyer, Bruno Danis, Louise Allcock, Martin Angel, Claudia Arango, et al.. How many species in the Southern Ocean? Towards a dynamic inventory of the Antarctic marine species.. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, Elsevier, 2011, 58 (1-2), pp.5-17. ⟨http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967064510002857#⟩. ⟨10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.10.007⟩. ⟨hal-01132567⟩

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