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A modal theorem-preserving translation of a class of three-valued logics of incomplete information

Abstract : There are several three-valued logical systems that form a scattered landscape, even if all reasonable connectives in three-valued logics can be derived from a few of them. Most papers on this subject neglect the issue of the relevance of such logics in relation with the intended meaning of the third truth-value. Here, we focus on the case where the third truth-value means unknown, as suggested by Kleene. Under such an understanding, we show that any truth-qualified formula in a large range of three-valued logics can be translated into KD as a modal formula of depth 1, with modalities in front of literals only, while preserving all tautologies and inference rules of the original three-valued logic. This simple information logic is a two-tiered classical propositional logic with simple semantics in terms of epistemic states understood as subsets of classical interpretations. We study in particular the translations of Kleene, Gödel, ᴌukasiewicz and Nelson logics. We show that Priest’s logic of paradox, closely connected to Kleene’s, can also be translated into our modal setting, simply by exchanging the modalities possible and necessary. Our work enables the precise expressive power of three-valued logics to be laid bare for the purpose of uncertainty management.
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Davide Ciucci, Didier Dubois. A modal theorem-preserving translation of a class of three-valued logics of incomplete information. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics, Taylor & Francis, 2013, vol. 23 (n° 4), pp. 321-352. ⟨10.1080/11663081.2013.863491⟩. ⟨hal-01122841⟩

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