Les cartes mentales : un changement de paradigme dans les apprentissages

Abstract : Mind maps are used in many areas of application. They keep up many similarities with the human brain. Therefore, they often are more effective than text when it comes to formalize some complex information. Because of its linearity and relatively low setting relief, a text does not account as directly (as mind maps) to relations between the entities being presented, nor to each's peculiar importance. Yet academic education systems always give a very important place to text(s), especially to literary texts which constitute corpus without highlighting nor discernible links between the entities residing in these texts (other than lexically). Yet, the cognitive cost of producing or reading/comprehending a text is relatively high compared to the one of needed for a map mind. Similarly, storing information from a text is also demands more efforts and time than from a map. Diagrams, graphs and geographical representations have been used throughout history, either to mentally store information before the popularization of paper (memory theaters during antiquity) or as hard copy material later on used to produce drawings representing concepts. Many sketches carried out by famous brains in order to present their projects or inventions have been identified and some of them are well known. This article expounds the importance of this type of formalization in relation to the production of text. It brings forward a few principles of mind maps' conception and some examples of application in the pedagogy field. We shall emphasize on the benefit brought by the use of mind maps in many (different) situations, especially when learners are struggling with the production/comprehension of a text or in a phase of learning a new language. Finally, we shall insist on the fact that, more than just a way of formalizing concepts notably well suited to some specific uses, mind maps represent a new way of learning and thinking which becomes hard to go without once one has perceived all the advantages they can provide.
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Stéphane Caro Dambreville. Les cartes mentales : un changement de paradigme dans les apprentissages. Communication, technologie et développement, 2014, pp.71-88. ⟨hal-01061022⟩

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