Optimally amplified large-scale streaks and drag reduction in the turbulent pipe flow

Abstract : The optimal amplifications of small coherent perturbations within turbulent pipe flow are computed for Reynolds numbers up to one million. Three standard frameworks are considered: the optimal growth of an initial condition, the response to harmonic forcing and the Karhunen-Loève (proper orthogonal decomposition) analysis of the response to stochastic forcing. Similar to analyses of the turbulent plane channel flow and boundary layer, it is found that streaks elongated in the streamwise direction can be greatly amplified from quasistreamwise vortices, despite linear stability of the mean flow profile. The most responsive perturbations are streamwise uniform and, for sufficiently large Reynolds number, the most responsive azimuthal mode is of wave number m=1. The response of this mode increases with the Reynolds number. A secondary peak, where m corresponds to azimuthal wavelengths $\lambda_\theta^+ \approx 70-90$ in wall units, also exists in the amplification of initial conditions and in premultiplied response curves for the forced problems. Direct numerical simulations at Re=5300 confirm that the forcing of m=1,2 and m=4 optimal structures results in the large response of coherent large-scale streaks. For moderate amplitudes of the forcing, low-speed streaks become narrower and more energetic, whereas high-speed streaks become more spread. It is further shown that drag reduction can be achieved by forcing steady large-scale structures, as anticipated from earlier investigations. Here the energy balance is calculated. At Re= 5300 it is shown that, due to the small power required by the forcing of optimal structures, a net power saving of the order of 10% can be achieved following this approach, which could be relevant for practical applications.
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Physical Review E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, American Physical Society, 2010, vol. 82, pp. 036321-1-03621-11. 〈10.1103/PhysRevE.82.036321〉
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Ashley P. Willis, Yongyun Hwang, Carlo Cossu. Optimally amplified large-scale streaks and drag reduction in the turbulent pipe flow. Physical Review E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, American Physical Society, 2010, vol. 82, pp. 036321-1-03621-11. 〈10.1103/PhysRevE.82.036321〉. 〈hal-00937392〉

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