Colloquium: Mechanical formalisms for tissue dynamics

Abstract : The understanding of morphogenesis in living organisms has been renewed by tremendous progressin experimental techniques that provide access to cell-scale, quantitative information both on theshapes of cells within tissues and on the genes being expressed. This information suggests that ourunderstanding of the respective contributions of gene expression and mechanics, and of their crucialentanglement, will soon leap forward. Biomechanics increasingly benefits from models, which assistthe design and interpretation of experiments, point out the main ingredients and assumptions, andultimately lead to predictions. The newly accessible local information thus calls for a reflectionon how to select suitable classes of mechanical models. We review both mechanical ingredientssuggested by the current knowledge of tissue behaviour, and modelling methods that can helpgenerate a rheological diagram or a constitutive equation. We distinguish cell scale (“intra-cell”)and tissue scale (“inter-cell”) contributions. We recall the mathematical framework developpedfor continuum materials and explain how to transform a constitutive equation into a set of partialdifferential equations amenable to numerical resolution. We show that when plastic behaviour isrelevant, the dissipation function formalism appears appropriate to generate constitutive equations;its variational nature facilitates numerical implementation, and we discuss adaptations needed in thecase of large deformations. The present article gathers theoretical methods that can readily enhancethe significance of the data to be extracted from recent or future high throughput biomechanicalexperiments.
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Soumis le : samedi 26 septembre 2015 - 15:50:07
Dernière modification le : jeudi 11 juillet 2019 - 11:52:02
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Sham Tlili, Cyprien Gay, Francois Graner, Philippe Marcq, François Molino, et al.. Colloquium: Mechanical formalisms for tissue dynamics. European Physical Journal E: Soft matter and biological physics, EDP Sciences: EPJ, 2015, 38, pp.33-63. ⟨10.1140/epje/i2015-15033-4⟩. ⟨hal-00867285v3⟩

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