Abstract : Gian-Carlo Rota suggested in one of his last articles the problem of developing a theory around the notion of integration algebras, complementary to the already existing theory of differential algebras. This idea was mainly motivated by Rota's deep appreciation for Kuo-Tsai Chen's seminal work on iterated integrals. As a starting point for such a theory of integration algebras Rota proposed to consider a particular operator identity first introduced by the mathematician Glen Baxter. Later it was coined Rota-Baxter identity. In this article we briefly recall basic properties of Rota--Baxter algebras, and present a concise review of recent work with a particular emphasis of noncommutative aspects.