Analytical continuum mechanics à la Hamilton-Piola: least action principle for second gradient continua and capillary fluids

Abstract : In this paper a stationary action principle is proven to hold for capillary fluids, i.e. fluids for which the deformation energy has the form suggested, starting from molecular arguments, for instance by Cahn and Hilliard. Remark that these fluids are sometimes also called Korteweg-de Vries or Cahn-Allen. In general continua whose deformation energy depend on the second gradient of placement are called second gradient (or Piola-Toupin or Mindlin or Green-Rivlin or Germain or second gradient) continua. In the present paper, a material description for second gradient continua is formulated. A Lagrangian action is introduced in both material and spatial description and the corresponding Euler-Lagrange bulk and boundary conditions are found. These conditions are formulated in terms of an objective deformation energy volume density in two cases: when this energy is assumed to depend on either C and grad C or on C^-1 and grad C^-1 ; where C is the Cauchy-Green deformation tensor. When particularized to energies which characterize fluid materials, the capillary fluid evolution conditions (see e.g. Casal or Seppecher for an alternative deduction based on thermodynamic arguments) are recovered. A version of Bernoulli law valid for capillary fluids is found and, in the Appendix B, useful kinematic formulas for the present variational formulation are proposed. Historical comments about Gabrio Piola's contribution to continuum analytical mechanics are also presented. In this context the reader is also referred to Capecchi and Ruta.
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Mathematics and Mechanics of Solids, SAGE Publications, 2013
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Nicolas Auffray, F. Dell'Isola, V. Eremeyev, A. Madeo, G. Rosi. Analytical continuum mechanics à la Hamilton-Piola: least action principle for second gradient continua and capillary fluids. Mathematics and Mechanics of Solids, SAGE Publications, 2013. 〈hal-00836085〉

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