Abstract : We present a new efficient method for calibration of cata- dioptric sensors. The method is based on an accurate measurement of the three-dimensional parameters of the mirror through polariza- tion imaging. While inserting a rotating polarizer between the cam- era and the mirror, the system is automatically calibrated without any calibration patterns. Moreover, this method permits most of the constraints related to the calibration of catadioptric systems to be relaxed. We show that, contrary to our system, the traditional meth- ods of calibration are very sensitive to misalignment of the camera axis and the symmetry axis of the mirror. From the measurement of three-dimensional parameters, we apply the generic calibration con- cept to calibrate the catadioptric sensor. We also show the influence of the disturbed measurement of the parameters on the reconstruc- tion of a synthetic scene. Finally, experiments prove the validity of the method with some preliminary results on three-dimensional reconstruction.