Abstract : Abstract Deciphering the molecular basis of toxicology mechanism induced by nanoparticles (NPs) remains an essential challenge. Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) was applied in combination with Transmission Electron Microscopy and Confocal Microscopy to analyze human keratinocytes exposed to TiO(2)-NPs. Investigating chemical elemental distributions using IBA gives rise to a fine quantification of the TiO(2)-NPs uptake within a cell and to the determination of the intracellular chemical modifications after TiO(2)-NPs internalization. In addition, fluorescent dye-modified TiO(2)-NPs have been synthesized to allow their detection, precise quantification and tracking in vitro. The internalization of these TiO(2)-NPs altered the calcium homeostasis and induced a decrease in cell proliferation associated with an early keratinocyte differentiation, without any indication of cell death. Additionally, the relation between the surface chemistry of the TiO(2)-NPs and their in vitro toxicity is clearly established and emphasizes the importance of the calcium homeostasis alteration in response to the presence of TiO(2)-NPs.