La grotte de Gargas (Aventignan, Hautes-Pyrénées) : nouvelles perspectives de recherche et premiers résultats sur les occupations gravettiennes.

Abstract : In this paper, we present the first results of new excavations of Gargas Cave from 2004 to 2005. These excavations were undertaken 90 years after the interruption of archaeological research by É. Cartailhac and H. Breuil (1911 and 1913). The current excavation concerns a zone that corresponds to a debris cone that naturally closed the cave. It contains two loci, separated by 20 metres. The first one (GES) is at the base of the cone near the former Cartailhac-Breuil excavations. The second one (GPO), which has not yet been excavated, is at the top of the cone near the prehistoric entrance. In the GES sector, we have identified the upper part of the stratigraphic sequence described during the Cartailhac-Breuil excavations and which corresponds to the Gravettian occupations. In the GPO sector, the deposit shows some sedimentological differences, but the Gravettian ensemble is also represented there. Our study of the newly excavated materials integrates information contributed by the old collections. According to the results of C14 dating, the Gravettian occupations occurred between 27,000 and 25,000 BP. The lithic industry is attributed to the Middle Gravettian with Noailles burins and shows a clear microlithic trend. The bone industry is principally composed of “mattocks” made on herbivore ribs, smoothers, awls and retouchers. The antler waste products show that longitudinal grooving was used for the fabrication of tools. Though no Isturitz Points have yet been found during the new excavations, this characteristic Gravettian point type is present in the old collections. The personal ornaments consist mainly of pierced Atlantic shells and perforated Cervid, Bovin, Izard and Carnivore teeth. In terms of their meat diet, the Gravettian groups at this site consumed mostly Reindeer, Bovinae and Izard. A zooarchaeological analysis has also demonstrated that the cave was occupied during all seasons and that butchery and consumption activities were performed there.
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Pascal Foucher, Cristina San Juan-Foucher, Catherine Ferrier, Isabelle Couchoud, Carole Vercoutère. La grotte de Gargas (Aventignan, Hautes-Pyrénées) : nouvelles perspectives de recherche et premiers résultats sur les occupations gravettiennes.. Les sociétés paléolithiques d'un grand Sud-Ouest : nouveaux gisements, nouvelles méthodes, nouveaux résultats., 2006, Bordeaux, France. pp.301-324. ⟨hal-00494329⟩

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