First evidence of laccase activity in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas

Abstract : Phenoloxidases (POs) are a family of enzymes including tyrosinases, catecholases and laccases, which play an important role in immune defence mechanisms in various invertebrates. The aim of this study was to thoroughly identify the PO-like activity present in the hemolymph of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, by using different substrates (i.e. dopamine and p-phenylenediamine, PPD) and different PO inhibitors. In order to go deeper in this analysis, we considered separately plasma and hemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS). In crude plasma, oxygraphic assays confirmed the presence of true oxidase activities. Moreover, the involvement of peroxidase(s) was excluded. In contrast to other molluscs, no tyrosinase-like activity was detected. With dopamine as substrate, PO-like activity was inhibited by the PO inhibitors tropolone, phenylthiourea (PTU), salicylhydroxamic acid and diethyldithio-carbamic acid, by a specific inhibitor of tyrosinases and catecholases, i.e. 4-hexylresorcinol (4-HR), and by a specific inhibitor of laccases, i.e. cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). With PPD as substrate, PO-like activity was inhibited by PTU and CTAB. In precipitated protein fractions from plasma, and with dopamine and PPD as substrates, PTU and 4-HR, and PTU and CTAB inhibited PO-like activity, respectively. In precipitated protein fractions from hemocyte lysate supernatant, PTU and CTAB inhibited PO-like activity, independently of the substrate. Taken together, these results suggest the presence of both catecholase- and laccase-like activities in plasma, and the presence of a laccase-like activity in HLS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a laccase-like activity is identified in a mollusc by using specific substrates and inhibitors for laccase, opening new perspectives for studying the implication of this enzyme in immune defence mechanisms of molluscs of high economic value such as C. gigas.
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Fish & Shellfish Immunology / Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 2010, 28 (4), pp.719-726. 〈10.1016/j.fsi.2010.01.008〉
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Andrea Luna Acosta, Eric Rosenfeld, Myriam Amari, Ingrid Fruitier-Arnaudin, Paco Bustamante, et al.. First evidence of laccase activity in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Fish & Shellfish Immunology / Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 2010, 28 (4), pp.719-726. 〈10.1016/j.fsi.2010.01.008〉. 〈hal-00477727v2〉

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