Abstract : In the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi (ROF) image denoising model, Total Variation (TV) is used as a global regularization term. However, as we observe, the local interactions induced by Total Variation do not propagate much at long distances in practice, so that the ROF model is not far from being a local filter. In this paper, we propose to build a purely local filter by considering the ROF model in a given neighborhood of each pixel. We show that appropriate weights are required to avoid aliasing-like effects, and we provide an explicit convergence criterion for an associated dual minimization algorithm based on Chambolle's work. We study theoretical properties of the obtained local filter, and show that this localization of the ROF model brings an interesting optimization of the bias-variance trade-off, and a strong reduction a ROF drawback called "staircasing effect". We finally present a new denoising algorithm, TV-means, that efficiently combines the idea of local TV-filtering with the non-local means patch-based method.