Inorganic Pollution in PM10 Particles Collected Over Three French Sites Under Various Influences: Rural Conditions, Traffic and Industry

Abstract : PM10 particles were collected over three sites in France. The first one, Montagney was a rural site that was considered as a reference site. The second site Saclay, close to a highway, was used to study the influence of the traffic. The third site was Dunkerque, one of the most industrial areas in France for the production of steel, aluminium and petroleum refinement. More than 50 element concentrations were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. Comparisons between Saclay and Montagney shown that some elements, considered as crustal elements had similar concentration variations and weak (close to 1) enrichment factors. Elements with enrichment factors higher than 10 shown in Montagney correlated variations, with a Winter maximum, that should be due to Winter heating sources. Over Saclay, most of elements with high enrichment factors were attributed to the dense traffic of the highway. This is particularly true for Mn, Fe, Zn, Ba, Sb, Cu. Some additional elements correlated also, without a particular origin that can be ascertained. In Dunkerque, the most important industry is steel production. Correlation studies shown that Tl, Cs, Ba, Ag, Cu, Rb, Se, Mn, Pb concentration variations were closely associated to the Fe concentration variations. The second polluting industry is aluminium production. Correlation studies allowed to associate Ni, Y, Co, V, rare earth elements, Ti, Sr, Th, U, Ca, Sc, concentration variations to the aluminium concentration variations. A third important industry is petroleum refinement. The only element observed here and that is suspected to be emitted more specifically is La, used in cracking processes. An important enrichment of La with respect to Ce is observed. A strong decrease of the ratio Cl/Na was observed over the three sites, between the beginning of the experiment in Autumn 2005, and its end in Spring 2006. This was attributed to a release of gaseous HCl, produced by acidification of aerosols by other pollutants like NOx and SOx, that should have been oxidized to NO2 and SO3, then dissolved in the aerosols. The effects responsible for the loss of Cl, represents a large surface and long-term pollution event over the North of France. This work allowed a characterization of the heavy metal concentrations of the aerosol that will sustain results published in a companion paper, and that concerned the bio-accumulation of metals by Scleropodium purum, simultaneously exposed in the same sites.
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André Gaudry, Mélanie Moskura, Clarisse Mariet, Sophie Ayrault, Franck-Olivier Denayer, et al.. Inorganic Pollution in PM10 Particles Collected Over Three French Sites Under Various Influences: Rural Conditions, Traffic and Industry. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, Springer Verlag, 2008, 193 (1-4), pp.91-106. ⟨10.1007/s11270-008-9670-7⟩. ⟨hal-00421343⟩

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