Abstract : Cochlear implants are devices that become more and more sophisticated and adapted to the need of patients, but at the same time they become more and more difficult to parameterize. After a deaf patient has been surgically implanted, a specialised medical practitioner has to spend hours during months to precisely fit the implant to the patient. This process is a complex one implying two intertwined tasks: the practitioner has to tune the parameters of the device (optimisation) while the patient's brain needs to adapt to the new data he receives (learning). This paper presents a study that intends to make the implant more adaptable to environment (auditive ecology) and to simplify the process of fitting. Real experiments on volunteer implanted patients are presented, that show the efficiency of interactive evolution for this purpose. This work has partially been funded by the French ANR - RNTS HEVEA project 04T550.