@article{Bauer1993ExplosiveFlow,
title = {Large radial flow in nucleus-nucleus collisions},
author = {Bauer, W. and Bondorf, J. P. and Donangelo, R. and Elm\'er, R. and Jakobsson, B. and Schulz, H. and Schussler, F. and Sneppen, K.},
journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
volume = {47},
issue = {5},
pages = {R1838--R1841},
year = {1993}
}
@article{Bauer1988Percolation,
title = {Extraction of signals of a phase transition from nuclear multifragmentation},
author = {Bauer, Wolfgang},
journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
volume = {38},
issue = {3},
pages = {1297--1303},
year = {1988}
}
@article {CampiEurPhysJD2000,
author = {Campi, X. and Krivine, H. and Sator, N. and Plagnol, E.},
title = {Analyzing fragmentation of simple fluids with percolation theory},
journal = {Eur. Phys. J. D},
pages = {233-238},
volume = {11},
year = {2000}
}
@book{StaufferPerco,
author = {Stauffer, D. and Aharony, A.},
publisher = {Taylor \& Francis Publishers},
title = {Introduction to Percolation Theory},
year = {1994},
address = {London}
}
@article{Ricciardi2004299,
title = "Complex nuclear-structure phenomena revealed from the nuclide production in fragmentation reactions",
journal = "Nuclear Physics A",
volume = "733",
number = "3–4",
pages = "299 - 318",
year = "2004",
author = "M.V. Ricciardi and A.V. Ignatyuk and A. Kelić and P. Napolitani and F. Rejmund and K.-H. Schmidt and O. Yordanov"
}
@book{UniversalFluctuationsBook,
title = {Universal Fluctuations - The Phenomenology of Hadronic Matter},
author = {Botet, R. and P\l{}oszajczak, M. },
publisher = {World Scientific Lecture Notes in Physics},
year = {2002}
}
@article{PhysRevLett.87.188901,
title = {Comment on ``Universal Fluctuations in Correlated Systems''},
author = {Zheng, B. and Trimper, S.},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
volume = {87},
issue = {18},
pages = {188901},
numpages = {1},
year = {2001},
month = {Oct},
publisher = {American Physical Society}
}
@article{PhysRevLett.54.1396,
title = {Dynamic Scaling in the Kinetics of Clustering},
author = {van Dongen, P. G. J. and Ernst, M. H.},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
volume = {54},
issue = {13},
pages = {1396--1399},
year = {1985},
month = {Apr},
publisher = {American Physical Society}
}
@book{ROOFIT,
title = "RooFit Users Manual v2.91",
year = "2008",
url = "ftp://root.cern.ch/root/doc/RooFit_Users_Manual_2.91-33.pdf",
author = "W. Verkerke and D. Kirkby"
}
@article{Pouthas1995418,
title = "INDRA, a 4\u03c0 charged product detection array at GANIL",
journal = "Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment",
volume = "357",
number = "2\u20133",
pages = "418 - 442",
year = "1995",
note = "",
doi = "10.1016/0168-9002(94)01543-0",
author = "J. Pouthas and B. Borderie and R. Dayras and E. Plagnol and M.F. Rivet and F. Saint-Laurent and J.C. Steckmeyer and G. Auger and C.O. Bacri and S. Barbey and A. Barbier and A. Benkirane and J. Benlliure and B. Berthier and E. Bougamont and P. Bourgault and P. Box and R. Bzyl and B. Cahan and Y. Cassagnou and D. Charlet and J.L. Charvet and A. Chbihi and T. Clerc and N. Copinet and D. Cussol and M. Engrand and J.M. Gautier and Y. Huguet and O. Jouniaux and J.L. Laville and P. Le Botlan and A. Leconte and R. Legrain and P. Lelong and M. Le Guay and L. Martina and C. Mazur and P. Mosrin and L. Olivier and J.P. Passerieux and S. Pierre and B. Piquet and E. Plaige and E.C. Pollacco and B. Raine and A. Richard and J. Ropert and C. Spitaels and L. Stab and D. Sznajderman and L. Tassan-got and J. Tillier and M. Tripon and P. Vallerand and C. Volant and P. Volkov and J.P. Wieleczko and G. Wittwer"
}
@article{PhysZ.17.557,
pages = {557--585},
author = {M. V. Smoluchowski},
volume = {17},
year = {1916},
journal = {Physik. Z.},
issue = {17},
}
@article{PhysRevLett.86.3514,
pages = {3514--3517},
author = {Botet, R. and P\l{}oszajczak, M. and Chbihi, A. and Borderie, B. and Durand, D. and Frankland, J.},
month = {Apr},
volume = {86},
year = {2001},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
title = {Universal Fluctuations in Heavy-Ion Collisions in the Fermi Energy Domain},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.3514},
issue = {16},
publisher = {American Physical Society}
}
@book{Gumbel1958Statistics,
address = {New York},
author = {Gumbel, E. J.},
citeulike-article-id = {10261504},
keywords = {extremal\_statistics, gumbel\_distribution},
posted-at = {2012-01-24 15:26:20},
priority = {2},
publisher = {Columbia University Press},
title = {Statistics of Extremes},
year = {1958}
}
@article{Botet2000Universal,
abstract = {We discuss the universal scaling laws of order-parameter fluctuations in any system in which a second-order critical behavior can be identified. These scaling laws can be derived rigorously for equilibrium systems when combined with a finite-size scaling analysis. The relation between the order parameter, the criticality, and the scaling law of fluctuations has been established, and the connection between the scaling function and the critical exponents has been found. We give examples in out-of-equilibrium aggregation models such as the Smoluchowski kinetic equations, or at-equilibrium Ising and percolation models.},
author = {Botet, Robert and Pl{}oszajczak, Marek},
citeulike-article-id = {10261361},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.62.1825},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRE/v62/i2/p1825},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRE/v62/i2/p1825},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.62.1825},
journal = {Physical Review E},
keywords = {critical\_exponents, criticality, delta\_scaling, finite\_size\_scaling, order\_parameter, universal\_fluctuations},
month = aug,
pages = {1825--1841},
posted-at = {2012-01-24 14:38:17},
priority = {0},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Universal features of the order-parameter fluctuations: Reversible and irreversible aggregation},
volume = {62},
year = {2000}
}
@article{Frankland2005Modelindependent,
abstract = {We look for signals of criticality in multifragment production in heavy-ion collisions using model-independent universal fluctuations theory. The phenomenon is studied as a function of system size, bombarding energy, and impact parameter over a wide range of {INDRA} data. For very central collisions (b/bmax<0.1) we find evidence that the largest fragment in each event, Zmax, plays the role of an order parameter, defining two different regimes at low and high incident energy, respectively, according to the scaling properties of its fluctuations. Data for a wide range of system masses and incident energies collapse on to an approximately universal scaling function in each regime for the most central collisions. The forms of the scaling functions for the two regimes are established, and their dependence on the total mass and the bombarding energy is mapped out. Data suggest that these regimes are linked to the disappearance of heavy residues in central collisions.},
author = {Frankland, J. D. and Chbihi, A. and Mignon, A. and Blaich, M. L. Begemann and Bittiger, R. and Borderie, B. and Bougault, R. and Charvet, J. L. and Cussol, D. and Dayras, R. and Durand, D. and Rodriguez, C. Escano and Galichet, E. and Guinet, D. and Lautesse, P. and Le F\'{e}vre, A. and Legrain, R. and Le Neindre, N. and Lopez, O. and L{}ukasik, J. and Lynen, U. and Manduci, L. and Marie, J. and M\"{u}ller, W. F. J. and Nalpas, L. and Orth, H. and P\^{a}rlog, M. and Pichon, M. and Rivet, M. F. and Rosato, E. and Roy, R. and Saija, A. and Schwarz, C. and Sfienti, C. and Tamain, B. and Trautmann, W. and Trzcinski, A. and Turz\'{o}, K. and Van Lauwe, A. and Vient, E. and Vigilante, M. and Volant, C. and Wieleczko, J. P. and Zwieglinski, B.},
citeulike-article-id = {10261354},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.71.034607},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v71/i3/e034607},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v71/i3/e034607},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.71.034607},
journal = {Physical Review C},
keywords = {biggest-fragment, central-collisions, clustering, coalescence, delta\_scaling, fluctuations, indra, nuclear\_multifragmentation, universal\_fluctuations},
month = mar,
pages = {034607},
posted-at = {2012-01-24 14:35:29},
priority = {0},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Model-independent tracking of criticality signals in nuclear multifragmentation data},
volume = {71},
year = {2005}
}
@article{Randrup1987Microcanonical,
abstract = {We discuss the formal basis for the theoretical treatment of nuclear multifragmentation within a microcanonical framework. The important role played by highly excited nuclear states and the interfragment forces is illustrated. The requirement of detailed balance is especially discussed and illustrated for the fission-fusion Metropolis moves in configuration space.},
author = {Randrup, J{\o}rgen and Koonin, Steven E.},
citeulike-article-id = {10258689},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9474(87)90262-4},
doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(87)90262-4},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
keywords = {canonical\_ensemble, finite\_systems, level\_density, limiting\_temperatures, microcanonical\_ensemble, nuclear\_multifragmentation, numerical\_simulations},
month = sep,
number = {1-2},
pages = {355--370},
posted-at = {2012-01-24 08:46:39},
priority = {4},
title = {Microcanonical simulation of nuclear multifragmentation},
volume = {471},
year = {1987}
}
@article{Koonin1987Microcanonical,
abstract = {We formulate a model for the disassembly of a highly excited finite nuclear source into interacting nuclear fragments. Monte Carlo sampling of the exact microcanonical and canonical ensemble provides many-fragment configurations at the effective freeze-out stage. The effect of including the interaction between the fragments is significant and an elaboration of the model that allows for a nucleon vapor suggests the existence of a first-order phase transition.},
author = {Koonin, Steven E. and Randrup, J{\o}rgen},
citeulike-article-id = {10258646},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9474(87)90199-0},
doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(87)90199-0},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
keywords = {canonical\_ensemble, finite\_systems, first\_order\_phase\_transition, level\_density, limiting\_temperatures, microcanonical\_ensemble, nuclear\_multifragmentation, numerical\_simulations},
month = nov,
number = {1},
pages = {173--192},
posted-at = {2012-01-24 08:09:32},
priority = {4},
title = {Microcanonical simulation of nuclear disassembly},
volume = {474},
year = {1987}
}
@article{Piantelli2008Freezeout,
abstract = {Freeze-out properties of multifragmentation events produced in central {129Xe} {natSn} collisions at different beam energies (32, 39, 45 and 50 A {MeV}) were estimated by means of a simulation based on the experimental data collected by the 4\"{I} {INDRA} multidetector. A rapid increase (between 32 and 45 A {MeV}) of the fraction of particles emitted at freeze-out is deduced. The existence of a limitation of excitation energy for fragments around 3.0–3.5 A {MeV} is confirmed. A comparison with the results of a microcanonical statistical model is also performed to verify the overall physical coherence of the present approach.},
author = {Piantelli, S. and Borderie, B. and Bonnet, E. and Le Neindre, N. and Raduta, Ad. and Rivet, M. F. and Bougault, R. and Chbihi, A. and Dayras, R. and Frankland, J. D. and Galichet, E. and Gagnon-Moisan, F. and Guinet, D. and Lautesse, P. and Lehaut, G. and Lopez, O. and Mercier, D. and Moisan, J. and P\^{a}rlog, M. and Rosato, E. and Roy, R. and Tamain, B. and Vient, E. and Vigilante, M. and Wieleczko, J. P.},
citeulike-article-id = {10257488},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2008.06.004},
doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2008.06.004},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
keywords = {central-collisions, freeze-out-volume, indra, nuclear\_multifragmentation},
month = sep,
number = {3-4},
pages = {111--128},
posted-at = {2012-01-23 16:27:56},
priority = {0},
title = {Freeze-out properties of multifragmentation events},
volume = {809},
year = {2008}
}
@article{Piantelli2005Estimate,
abstract = {An estimate of the average freeze-out volume for multifragmentation events is presented. Values of volumes are obtained by means of a simulation using the experimental charged product partitions measured by the 4\"{I} multidetector {INDRA} for {129Xe} central collisions on {natSn} at incident energy. The input parameters of the simulation are tuned by means of the comparison between the experimental and simulated velocity (or energy) spectra of particles and fragments.},
author = {Piantelli, S. and Le Neindre, N. and Bonnet, E. and Borderie, B. and Lanzalone, G. and Parlog, M. and Rivet, M. and Bougault, R. and Chbihi, A. and Dayras, R.},
citeulike-article-id = {10257481},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2005.08.119},
day = {27},
doi = {10.1016/j.physletb.2005.08.119},
journal = {Physics Letters B},
keywords = {central-collisions, freeze-out-volume, indra, nuclear\_multifragmentation},
month = oct,
number = {1-4},
pages = {18--25},
posted-at = {2012-01-23 16:19:38},
priority = {0},
title = {Estimate of average freeze-out volume in multifragmentation events},
volume = {627},
year = {2005}
}
@article{Natowitz2002Caloric,
abstract = {Data from a number of different experimental measurements are used to construct caloric curves for five different regions of nuclear mass. These curves are qualitatively similar, and exhibit plateaus at the higher excitation energies. The limiting temperatures represented by the plateaus decrease with increasing nuclear mass, and are in very good agreement with results of recent calculations employing either a chiral symmetry model or the Gogny interaction. This agreement strongly favors a soft equation of state. Evidence is presented which suggests that critical excitation energies and critical temperatures might be determined from caloric curve measurements when the mass variations inherent in such measurements are taken into account.},
author = {Natowitz, J. B. and Wada, R. and Hagel, K. and Keutgen, T. and Murray, M. and Makeev, A. and Qin, L. and Smith, P. and Hamilton, C.},
citeulike-article-id = {10257467},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.65.034618},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v65/i3/e034618},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v65/i3/e034618},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.65.034618},
journal = {Physical Review C},
keywords = {caloric\_curve, limiting\_temperatures, mass\_dependence},
month = mar,
pages = {034618},
posted-at = {2012-01-23 16:02:48},
priority = {0},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Caloric curves and critical behavior in nuclei},
volume = {65},
year = {2002}
}
@article{Pochodzalla1996Pochodzalla,
abstract = {A Reply to the Comment by L. G. Moretto et al.},
author = {Pochodzalla, J. and M\"{o}hlenkamp, T. and Rubehn, T. and Sch\"{u}ttauf, A. and W\"{o}rner, A. and Zude, E. and Blaich, M. Begemann and Th and Emling, H. and Ferrero, A. and Gross, C. and Imm\'{e}, G. and Iori, I. and Kunde, G. J. and Kunze, W. D. and Lindenstruth, V. and Lynen, U. and Moroni, A. and M\"{u}ller, W. F. J. and Ocker, B. and Raciti, G. and Sann, H. and Schwarz, C. and Seidel, W. and Serfling, V. and Stroth, J. and Trautmann, W. and Trzcinski, A. and Tucholski, A. and Verde, G. and Zwieglinski, B.},
citeulike-article-id = {10255440},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.76.2823},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v76/i15/p2823},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRL/v76/i15/p2823},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.76.2823},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
keywords = {caloric\_curve},
month = apr,
pages = {2823},
posted-at = {2012-01-23 11:04:07},
priority = {2},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Pochodzalla \textit{et al.} Reply:},
volume = {76},
year = {1996}
}
@article{Moretto1996Comment,
abstract = {A Comment on the Letter by J. Pochodzalla, et al., Physical Review Letters 75, 1040 (1995). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply.},
author = {Moretto, L. G. and Ghetti, R. and Phair, L. and Tso, K. and Wozniak, G. J.},
citeulike-article-id = {10255437},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.76.2822},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v76/i15/p2822},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRL/v76/i15/p2822},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.76.2822},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
keywords = {caloric\_curve},
month = apr,
pages = {2822},
posted-at = {2012-01-23 11:03:11},
priority = {2},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Comment on ``Probing the Nuclear {Liquid-Gas} Phase Transition''},
volume = {76},
year = {1996}
}
@article{Peilert1991Clustering,
abstract = {Canonical Metropolis simulations of nuclear matter at finite temperatures are made with a quasi-classical many-body model. It is demonstrated that considerable clustering develops at subsaturation densities. This effect lowers the energy by several {MeV} per nucleon, for temperatures below ≈8 {MeV}. This result will modify previous simple estimates of the critical parameters of the liquid-vapour phase transition.},
author = {Peilert, G.},
citeulike-article-id = {10255432},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(91)91611-X},
day = {16},
doi = {10.1016/0370-2693(91)91611-X},
journal = {Physics Letters B},
keywords = {clustering, equation\_of\_state, quantum-molecular-dynamics},
month = may,
number = {3-4},
pages = {271--277},
posted-at = {2012-01-23 10:53:22},
priority = {0},
title = {Clustering in nuclear matter at subsaturation densities},
volume = {260},
year = {1991}
}
@article{DʼAgostino2012Towards,
abstract = {The reactions are studied at 14.5 A {MeV}. Evidence is found for important odd–even effects in isotopic observables of selected peripheral collisions corresponding to the decay of a projectile-like source. The influence of secondary decays on the staggering is studied with a correlation function technique. It is shown that this method is a powerful tool to get experimental information on the evaporation chain, in order to constrain model calculations. Specifically, we show that odd–even effects are due to interplay between pairing effects in the nuclear masses and in the level densities.},
author = {DʼAgostino, M. and Bruno, M. and Gulminelli, F. and Morelli, L. and Baiocco, G. and Bardelli, L. and Barlini, S. and Cannata, F. and Casini, G. and Geraci, E. and Gramegna, F. and Kravchuk, V. L. and Marchi, T. and Moroni, A. and Ordine, A. and Raduta, Ad},
citeulike-article-id = {10139240},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2011.11.011},
doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2011.11.011},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
keywords = {correlation\_functions, dissipative-binary-collisions, evaporation-chain, odd-even-effects, peripheral-collisions, staggering},
month = feb,
pages = {139--159},
posted-at = {2012-01-23 08:03:01},
priority = {2},
title = {Towards an understanding of staggering effects in dissipative binary collisions},
volume = {875},
year = {2012}
}
@article{Carlson2012Fermi,
abstract = {We demonstrate the equivalence of a generalized Fermi breakup model, in which densities of excited states are taken into account, to the microcanonical statistical multifragmentation model used to describe the disintegration of highly excited fragments of nuclear reactions. We argue that such a model better fulfills the hypothesis of statistical equilibrium than the Fermi breakup model generally used to describe statistical disintegration of light mass nuclei.},
author = {Carlson, B. V. and Donangelo, R. and Souza, S. R. and Lynch, W. G. and Steiner, A. W. and Tsang, M. B.},
citeulike-article-id = {10175659},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2011.12.009},
doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2011.12.009},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
keywords = {fermi-break-up, microcanonical\_ensemble, smm},
month = feb,
pages = {77--92},
posted-at = {2012-01-23 07:52:18},
priority = {4},
title = {Fermi breakup and the statistical multifragmentation model},
volume = {876},
year = {2012}
}
@article{Gauvin1990Stopping,
abstract = {The stopping powers of ten solid media (nine elements from Be to Au and mylar) have been measured for 25–45 {MeV}/u Kr and 25 {MeV}/u Mo and Xe ions. The accuracy in stopping power determinations is ± 1–2\%. In addition, the charge state distributions at equilibrium of Kr, Mo, Xe ions exiting Be, Al and Au targets have been determined. Average charge states have been deduced. For Kr ions exiting any target, a semi-empirical expression has been obtained to predict the mean charge in a large energy domain (4–50 {MeVu}). The stopping power data have been compared with a scaling relative to He2 ion stopping powers, assuming fully stripped ions inside the degraders. Effective charge parameters \^{I}³ have been derived and compared with the ionization degree . Information concerning the emission of Auger electrons by ions exiting targets has been obtained. The stopping power data have also been compared with values from Ziegler (1980). Discrepancies are observed for light (Be) and heavy media ({Ta-Au}). A comparison has been made with the very recent semi-empirical calculations from Hubert et al. (1989). Excellent agreement is found with experimental data for all projectiles and media.},
author = {Gauvin, H. and Bimbot, R. and Herault, J. and Kubica, B. and Anne, R. and Bastin, G. and Hubert, F.},
citeulike-article-id = {10228955},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-583X(90)90610-7},
doi = {10.1016/0168-583X(90)90610-7},
journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
keywords = {charge\_state\_distribution, stopping\_power},
month = jun,
number = {4},
pages = {339--350},
posted-at = {2012-01-16 08:00:38},
priority = {2},
title = {Stopping powers of solids for {84,86Kr}, {100Mo} and {129,132Xe} ions at intermediate energies (20–45 {MeV}/u) and the charge state distributions at equilibrium},
volume = {47},
year = {1990}
}
@unpublished{DeFilippo1995Reference,
author = {De Filippo, E. and Dayras, R.},
citeulike-article-id = {9478119},
journal = {SPhN-95-60},
posted-at = {2011-06-30 14:59:35},
priority = {2},
title = {Reference for the {INDRA} {Chio-Si} identification and the energy loss routines},
year = {1995}
}
@article{Northcliffe1970Range,
author = {Northcliffe, L. and Schilling, R.},
citeulike-article-id = {9442975},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0092-640X(70)80016-X},
doi = {10.1016/S0092-640X(70)80016-X},
journal = {Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables},
month = jan,
number = {3-4},
pages = {233--463},
posted-at = {2011-06-21 09:11:55},
priority = {2},
title = {Range and stopping-power tables for heavy ions},
volume = {7},
year = {1970}
}
@article{Cussol1993Chargedparticle,
abstract = {Temperatures and excitation energies have been independently determined for hot nuclei formed in the {40Ar} {27Al} reaction at energies ranging from 36 to 65 {MeV}/u. Charged products have been measured in a geometry close to 4π in the center of mass with the multidetectors {MUR} and {TONNEAU}. Events were sorted as a function of the impact parameter and the products emitted from equilibrated nuclei were separated from both pre-equilibrium and target-like products. Temperature (slope parameter) and excitation energy values were deduced from the kinetic energies of particles in the frame of the reconstructed equilibrated nucleus. Both have been found to increase with decreasing impact parameter. For the most central collisions impact parameters — less than 2 fm — the temperature was seen to increase with incident energy (slowly above 45 {MeV}/u) and reach a value of 7 {MeV} at 65 {MeV}/u. The excitation energy per nucleon exhibited a similar behaviour. The correlation between excitation energy and temperature was found to remain compatible with the statistical theory.},
author = {Cussol, D. and Bizard, G. and Brou, R. and Durand, D. and Louvel, M. and Patry, J. and Peter, J. and Regimbart, R. and Steckmeyer, J. and Sullivan, J.},
citeulike-article-id = {9425442},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9474(93)90155-Q},
day = {23},
doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(93)90155-Q},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
month = aug,
number = {2},
pages = {298--316},
posted-at = {2011-06-17 13:38:49},
priority = {2},
title = {Charged-particle calorimetry of {40Ar} {27Al} reactions from 36 to 65 {MeV}/u},
volume = {561},
year = {1993}
}
@article{Glassel1982Direct,
abstract = {Kinematically complete experiments have been performed on the three-body exit channels in {12.5-MeV}/u {129Xe} on {122Sn}. The events observed result from a sequential fission process taking place in 1×10-21 s. The angular distribution of the fission axis is approximately collinear with the axis of the first scission, and the mass distribution of the fission is asymmetric with the heavier mass preferentially emitted opposite to the direction of the third particle. These effects show the existence of a new phenomenon of nonequilibrium fission.},
author = {Gl\"{a}ssel, P. and Harrach and Grodzins, L. and Specht, H. J.},
citeulike-article-id = {9424935},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.48.1089},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v48/i16/p1089},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRL/v48/i16/p1089},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.48.1089},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
month = apr,
number = {16},
pages = {1089--1093},
posted-at = {2011-06-17 08:18:28},
priority = {2},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Direct Observation of Nonequilibrium Effects in Sequential Fission},
volume = {48},
year = {1982}
}
@article{Harrach1982Direct,
abstract = {Kinematically complete experiments have been performed on the two- and three-body exit channels in {12.4-MeV}/u {84Kr} on {90Zr} and {166Er}, and {12.5-MeV}/u {129Xe} on {122Sn}. Three-body events occur with a high probability. They arise predominantly from two-step reactions, with large energy losses in the first step leading to fission in the second. Strong proximity effects, observed in the final three-body state of the {Xe-Sn} reaction, establish a scission-to-scission time of about 1×10-21s.},
author = {Harrach and Gl\"{a}ssel, P. and Grodzins, L. and Kapoor, S. S. and Specht, H. J.},
citeulike-article-id = {9424933},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.48.1093},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v48/i16/p1093},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRL/v48/i16/p1093},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.48.1093},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
month = apr,
number = {16},
pages = {1093--1097},
posted-at = {2011-06-17 08:18:14},
priority = {2},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Direct Observation of Proximity Effects in Ternary {Heavy-Ion} Reactions},
volume = {48},
year = {1982}
}
@article{Hubert1990Range,
abstract = {Stopping powers and ranges are tabulated for all ions of atomic number 2 ≤ Z ≤ 103 in the energy region 2.5 ≤ {E/A} ≤ 500 {MeV}/u for 36 solid materials. The calculations use stopping powers for α particles and a new parameterization for the heavy-ion effective charge which is deduced from a set of about 600 experimental stopping-power values covering an energy range from 3 to 90 {MeV}/u for 15 incident heavy ions and 18 solid stopping materials.},
author = {Hubert, F. and Bimbot, R. and Gauvin, H.},
citeulike-article-id = {9421935},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0092-640X(90)90001-Z},
doi = {10.1016/0092-640X(90)90001-Z},
journal = {Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables},
month = sep,
number = {1},
pages = {1--213},
posted-at = {2011-06-16 15:25:04},
priority = {2},
title = {Range and stopping-power tables for 2.5–500 {MeV}/nucleon heavy ions in solids},
volume = {46},
year = {1990}
}
@article{Bimbot1992Compilation,
abstract = {In 1978 and 1980, two series of measurements, performed with 3–6 {MeV}/u heavy ions, indicated without ambiguity that the commonly used stopping power tabulations failed in reproducing the data. After analysis, this was attributed to the fact that the effective charge parametrization, which is the basis of such tabulations, was oversimplified. A new tabulation of stopping powers and ranges of heavy ions in solids, covering the energy range from 2.5 to 100 {MeV}/u was proposed in 1980. The basis of this tabulation was a Q12 scaling of the stopping powers relative to those of {4He} at the same velocity in the same media, the effective charge parameter being adjusted according to experimental data. From 1983 to 1990, a new series of measurements performed with 20–100 {MeV}/u heavy ions at {GANIL} revealed some defects in this parametrization when the ions tend to be fully stripped. These defects were corrected for in a new tabulation (1990) based on a set of 600 stopping power measurements, and covering the energy range from 2.5 to 500 {MeV}/u. In 1982, at Darmstadt, a systematic difference was observed between the stopping powers of very heavy ions in gases and in solids. It was therefore impossible to apply to gases the effective charge parametrization valid for solids. This gas-solid effect was confirmed by an extensive experimental study, carried out at Orsay in the energy range 2–13 {MeV}/u (1985), and its vanishing at high energy was observed at {GANIL} in a recent series of experiments (1988–1990).},
author = {Bimbot, R.},
citeulike-article-id = {9421927},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-583X(92)95730-F},
day = {01},
doi = {10.1016/0168-583X(92)95730-F},
journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
keywords = {charge\_state\_distribution, stopping\_power},
month = jun,
number = {1},
pages = {1--9},
posted-at = {2011-06-16 15:21:37},
priority = {2},
title = {Compilation, measurements and tabulation of heavy ion stopping data},
volume = {69},
year = {1992}
}
@article{Hufner1975Abrasionablation,
abstract = {The abrasion-ablation model for reactions between relativistic heavy ions is derived from Glauber's multiple scattering theory. Simple expressions are found for the abrasion cross section and for the excitation energy of the projectile after abrasion. Both quantities depend on nuclear densities and on the nucleon-nucleon forward scattering amplitude. They do not contain any adjustable parameters. With a very simple model for the ablation process, fragmentation cross sections for the production of individual isotopes are calculated. The agreement with experiment is good for most cases. Systematic discrepancies are observed and are analyzed in terms of an extension of the abrasion-ablation {model.NUCLEAR} {REACTIONS} Relativistic heavy ions, calculated fragmentation cross sections.},
author = {H\"{u}fner, J. and Sch\"{a}fer, K. and Sch\"{u}rmann, B.},
citeulike-article-id = {8976079},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.12.1888},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v12/i6/p1888},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v12/i6/p1888},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.12.1888},
journal = {Physical Review C},
keywords = {abrasion-ablation},
month = dec,
number = {6},
pages = {1888--1898},
posted-at = {2011-03-10 11:15:20},
priority = {2},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Abrasion-ablation in reactions between relativistic heavy ions},
volume = {12},
year = {1975}
}
@article{Ogul2011Isospindependent,
abstract = {The {N/Z} dependence of projectile fragmentation at relativistic energies has been studied with the {ALADIN} forward spectrometer at the {GSI} Schwerionen Synchrotron ({SIS}). Stable and radioactive Sn and La beams with an incident energy of 600 {MeV} per nucleon have been used in order to explore a wide range of isotopic compositions. For the interpretation of the data, calculations with the statistical multifragmentation model for a properly chosen ensemble of excited sources were performed. The parameters of the ensemble, representing the variety of excited spectator nuclei expected in a participant-spectator scenario, are determined empirically by searching for an optimum reproduction of the measured fragment-charge distributions and correlations. An overall very good agreement is obtained. The possible modification of the liquid-drop parameters of the fragment description in the hot freeze-out environment is studied, and a significant reduction of the symmetry-term coefficient is found necessary to reproduce the mean neutron-to-proton ratios 〈{N〉/Z} and the isoscaling parameters of Z⩽10 fragments. The calculations are, furthermore, used to address open questions regarding the modification of the surface-term coefficient at freeze-out, the {N/Z} dependence of the nuclear caloric curve, and the isotopic evolution of the spectator system between its formation during the initial cascade stage of the reaction and its subsequent breakup.},
author = {Ogul, R. and Botvina, A. S. and Atav, U. and Buyukcizmeci, N. and Mishustin, I. N. and Adrich, P. and Aumann, T. and Bacri, C. O. and Barczyk, T. and Bassini, R. and Bianchin, S. and Boiano, C. and Boudard, A. and Brzychczyk, J. and Chbihi, A. and Cibor, J. and Czech, B. and De Napoli, M. and Ducret and Emling, H. and Frankland, J. D. and Hellstr\"{o}m, M. and Henzlova, D. and Imm\`{e}, G. and Iori, I. and Johansson, H. and Kezzar, K. and Lafriakh, A. and Le F\`{e}vre, A. and Le Gentil, E. and Leifels, Y. and L\"{u}hning, J. and L{}ukasik, J. and Lynch, W. G. and Lynen, U. and Majka, Z. and Mocko, M. and M\"{u}ller, W. F. J. and Mykulyak, A. and Orth, H. and Otte, A. N. and Palit, R. and Pawl{}owski, P. and Pullia, A. and Raciti, G. and Rapisarda, E. and Sann, H. and Schwarz, C. and Sfienti, C. and Simon, H. and S\"{u}mmerer, K. and Trautmann, W. and Tsang, M. B. and Verde, G. and Volant, C. and Wallace, M. and Weick, H. and Wiechula, J. and Wieloch, A. and Zwiegli\'{n}ski, B.},
citeulike-article-id = {8886984},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.83.024608},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v83/i2/e024608},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v83/i2/e024608},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.83.024608},
journal = {Physical Review C},
keywords = {isospin\_dependent, projectile, relativistic\_energies, smm, spectator},
month = feb,
number = {2},
pages = {024608},
posted-at = {2011-02-25 14:07:22},
priority = {2},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Isospin-dependent multifragmentation of relativistic projectiles},
volume = {83},
year = {2011}
}
@article{Plagnol1999Onset,
abstract = {Experimental data obtained with the 4π multidetector system {INDRA} are used to study midvelocity emissions of light charged particles ({LCP}) and intermediate mass fragments for peripheral and semicentral collisions of Xe and Sn at energies between 25 and 50 {MeV}/nucleon. The analysis is performed as a function of incident energy and of impact parameter, defined through the total transverse energy of {LCP}. The onset of midvelocity emissions is found to be close to 25 {MeV}/nucleon. Evaporative processes are also identified and are found to be sensitive to the impact parameter but show, for a given impact parameter, little dependence on the incident energy. A chemical analysis of the midvelocity component is performed. Compared to the evaporative process, midvelocity matter is found to be more neutron rich. Results are compared with the predictions of a dynamical model ({CHIMERA}). The general trends are well reproduced but some interesting differences are observed, notably in the amount of relative energy dissipation, showing that midvelocity emissions could be sensitive to the finer details of the interaction.},
author = {Plagnol, E. and L{}ukasik, J. and Auger, G. and Ch and Bellaize, N. and Bocage, F. and Borderie, B. and Bougault, R. and Brou, R. and Buchet, P. and Charvet, J. L. and Chbihi, A. and Colin, J. and Cussol, D. and Dayras, R. and Demeyer, A. and Dor\'{e}, D. and Durand, D. and Frankland, J. D. and Galichet, E. and Duhamel, E. Genouin and Gerlic, E. and Guinet, D. and Lautesse, P. and Laville, J. L. and Lecolley, J. F. and Legrain, R. and Le Neindre, N. and Lopez, O. and Louvel, M. and Maskay, A. M. and Nalpas, L. and Nguyen, A. D. and P\^{a}rlog, M. and P\'{e}ter, J. and Rivet, M. F. and Rosato, E. and Laurent, F. Saint and Salou, S. and Steckmeyer, J. C. and Stern, M. and T\u{a}b\u{a}caru, G. and Tamain, B. and Got, L. Tassan and Tirel, O. and Vient, E. and Volant, C. and Wieleczko, J. P.},
citeulike-article-id = {8877903},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.61.014606},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v61/i1/e014606},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v61/i1/e014606},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.61.014606},
journal = {Physical Review C},
keywords = {dynamical\_effects, fragment\_production, midvelocity},
month = dec,
number = {1},
pages = {014606},
posted-at = {2011-02-23 13:12:34},
priority = {0},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Onset of midvelocity emissions in symmetric heavy ion reactions},
volume = {61},
year = {1999}
}
@article{Lukasik1997Dynamical,
abstract = {Experimental data obtained with the 4π multidetector system {INDRA} are used to study the light charged particle ({LCP}, Z<\~{}2) and intermediate mass fragment ({IMF}, Z>\~{}3) production in peripheral and semicentral collisions of Xe and Sn at 50 {MeV}/nucleon. It is found that a sizable fraction of the detected {LCP}'s and {IMF}'s originates from the midvelocity region. These fragments can be seen to come either from a prompt (preequilibrium) mechanism or from a slower but dynamically influenced emission process. The relative magnitude of the dynamically influenced emission relative to the isotropic statistical evaporation is presented as a function of the transverse energy of light particles, used as an impact parameter selector. The results are compared to dynamical models with which a good agreement is obtained.},
author = {L{}ukasik, J. and Benlliure, J. and M\'{e}tivier, V. and Plagnol, E. and Tamain, B. and Assenard, M. and Auger, G. and Ch and Bisquer, E. and Borderie, B. and Bougault, R. and Brou, R. and Ph and Charvet, J. L. and Chbihi, A. and Colin, J. and Cussol, D. and Dayras, R. and Demeyer, A. and Dor\'{e}, D. and Durand, D. and Gerlic, E. and Germain, S. and Gourio, D. and Guinet, D. and Lautesse, P. and Laville, J. L. and Lecolley, J. F. and Le F\`{e}vre, A. and Lefort, T. and Legrain, R. and Lopez, O. and Louvel, M. and Marie, N. and Nalpas, L. and Parlog, M. and P\'{e}ter, J. and Politi, O. and Rahmani, A. and Reposeur, T. and Rivet, M. F. and Rosato, E. and Laurent, F. Saint and Squalli, M. and Steckmeyer, J. C. and Stern, M. and Got, L. Tassan and Vient, E. and Volant, C. and Wieleczko, J. P. and Colonna, M. and Haddad, F. and Ph and Sami, T. and Sebille, F.},
citeulike-article-id = {8877892},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.55.1906},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v55/i4/p1906},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v55/i4/p1906},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.55.1906},
journal = {Physical Review C},
keywords = {dynamical\_effects, fragment\_production},
month = apr,
number = {4},
pages = {1906--1916},
posted-at = {2011-02-23 13:09:22},
priority = {0},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Dynamical effects and intermediate mass fragment production in peripheral and semicentral collisions of {XeSn} at 50 {MeV}/nucleon},
volume = {55},
year = {1997}
}
@article{Bonnet2010New,
abstract = {Fragment partitions of fragmenting hot nuclei produced in central and semiperipheral collisions have been compared in the excitation energy region 4–10 {MeV} per nucleon where radial collective expansion takes place. It is shown that, for a given total excitation energy per nucleon, the amount of radial collective energy fixes the mean fragment multiplicity. It is also shown that, at a given total excitation energy per nucleon, the different properties of fragment partitions are completely determined by the reduced fragment multiplicity (i.e., normalized to the source size). Freeze-out volumes seem to play a role in the scalings observed.},
author = {Bonnet, E. and Borderie, B. and Le Neindre, N. and Raduta, Ad. and Rivet, M. F. and Bougault, R. and Chbihi, A. and Frankland, J. D. and Galichet, E. and Moisan, F. Gagnon and Guinet, D. and Lautesse, P. and L{}ukasik, J. and Marini, P. and P\^{a}rlog, M. and Rosato, E. and Roy, R. and Spadaccini, G. and Vigilante, M. and Wieleczko, J. P. and Zwieglinski, B.},
citeulike-article-id = {8860134},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.142701},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v105/i14/e142701},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRL/v105/i14/e142701},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.142701},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
month = sep,
number = {14},
pages = {142701},
posted-at = {2011-02-21 07:47:41},
priority = {0},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {New Scalings in Nuclear Fragmentation},
volume = {105},
year = {2010}
}
@article{Carbone2011Latent,
abstract = {We study the latent heat of the liquid-gas phase transition in symmetric nuclear matter using self-consistent mean-field calculations with a few Skyrme forces. The temperature dependence of the latent heat is rather independent of the mean-field parametrization and it can be characterized by a few parameters. At low temperatures, the latent heat tends to the saturation energy. Near the critical point, the latent heat goes to zero with a well-determined mean-field critical exponent. A maximum value of the latent heat in the range l\~{}25–30 {MeV} is found at intermediate temperatures, which might have experimental relevance. All these features can be explained from very basic principles.},
author = {Carbone, Arianna and Polls, Artur and Rios, Arnau and Na, Isaac V.},
citeulike-article-id = {8834964},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.83.024308},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v83/i2/e024308},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v83/i2/e024308},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.83.024308},
journal = {Physical Review C},
keywords = {first\_order\_phase\_transition, latent\_heat, phase-diagram},
month = feb,
number = {2},
pages = {024308},
posted-at = {2011-02-17 09:47:54},
priority = {2},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Latent heat of nuclear matter},
volume = {83},
year = {2011}
}
@article{Botet2005Exact,
abstract = {We show that the order-parameter distribution for the mean-field percolation at the critical point is the {Kolmogorov-Smirnov} distribution and that it coincides with the corresponding distribution for a mean-field aggregation process at the critical time. Both processes are known to belong to the same universality class in the sense that they share the same set of critical exponents, but percolation is at the equilibrium while the aggregation is a dynamical critical process. This shows that, in this case, the probability density for order-parameter fluctuations is universal at the critical point of the infinite lattice, independent of the hypothesis of thermodynamic equilibrium.},
author = {Botet, Robert and Pl{}oszajczak, Marek},
citeulike-article-id = {8834938},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.185702},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v95/i18/e185702},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRL/v95/i18/e185702},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.185702},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
keywords = {biggest-fragment, criticality, kolmogorov\_smirnov},
month = oct,
number = {18},
pages = {185702},
posted-at = {2011-02-17 09:45:30},
priority = {2},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Exact {Order-Parameter} Distribution for Critical {Mean-Field} Percolation and Critical Aggregation},
volume = {95},
year = {2005}
}
@article{Sun2010Isospin,
abstract = {Equilibration and equilibration rates have been measured by colliding Sn nuclei with different isospin asymmetries at beam energies of {E/A}=35 {MeV}. Using the yields of mirror nuclei of {7Li} and {7Be}, we have studied the diffusion of isospin asymmetry by combining data from asymmetric {112Sn}{124Sn} and {124Sn}{112Sn} collisions with those from symmetric {112Sn}{112Sn} and {124Sn}{124Sn} collisions. We use these measurements to probe isospin equilibration in central collisions where nucleon-nucleon collisions are strongly blocked by the Pauli exclusion principle. The results are consistent with transport theoretical calculations that predict a degree of transparency in these collisions, but inconsistent with the emission of intermediate mass fragments by a single chemically equilibrated source. Comparisons with quantum molecular dynamics calculations are consistent with results obtained at higher incident energies that provide constraints on the density dependence of the symmetry energy.},
author = {Sun, Z. Y. and Tsang, M. B. and Lynch, W. G. and Verde, G. and Amorini, F. and Andronenko, L. and Andronenko, M. and Cardella, G. and Chatterje, M. and Danielewicz, P. and De Filippo, E. and Dinh, P. and Galichet, E. and Geraci, E. and Hua, H. and La Guidara, E. and Lanzalone, G. and Liu, H. and Lu, F. and Lukyanov, S. and Maiolino, C. and Pagano, A. and Piantelli, S. and Papa, M. and Pirrone, S. and Politi, G. and Porto, F. and Rizzo, F. and Russotto, P. and Santonocito, D. and Zhang, Y. X.},
citeulike-article-id = {8500468},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.82.051603},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v82/i5/e051603},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v82/i5/e051603},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.82.051603},
journal = {Physical Review C},
month = nov,
number = {5},
pages = {051603},
posted-at = {2011-01-03 14:45:33},
priority = {2},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Isospin diffusion and equilibration for \${SnSn}\$ collisions at \${E/A}=35\$ {MeV}},
volume = {82},
year = {2010}
}
@article{Rizzo2007Comparison,
abstract = {Multifragmentation scenarios, as predicted by antisymmetrized molecular dynamics ({AMD}) or momentum-dependent stochastic mean-field ({BGBD}) calculations are compared. Whereas in the {BGBD} case fragment emission is clearly linked to the spinodal decomposition mechanism (i.e., to mean-field instabilities), in {AMD} many-body correlations have a stronger impact on the fragmentation dynamics. In fact, the density and momentum fluctuations develop earlier in {AMD}, suggesting that fragments are formed on shorter time scales in {AMD}, on about equal footing as light-particle pre-equilibrium emission.},
author = {Rizzo, J. and Colonna, M. and Ono, A.},
citeulike-article-id = {8500392},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.76.024611},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v76/i2/e024611},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v76/i2/e024611},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.76.024611},
journal = {Physical Review C},
month = aug,
number = {2},
pages = {024611},
posted-at = {2011-01-03 14:04:36},
priority = {2},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Comparison of multifragmentation dynamical models},
volume = {76},
year = {2007}
}
@article{Colonna2010Fragmentation,
abstract = {We undertake a quantitative comparison of multifragmentation reactions, as modeled by two different approaches: the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics ({AMD}) and the momentum-dependent stochastic mean-field ({SMF}) model. Fragment observables and pre-equilibrium (nucleon and light cluster) emission are analyzed, in connection with the underlying compression-expansion dynamics in each model. Considering reactions between neutron-rich systems, observables related to the isotopic properties of emitted particles and fragments are also discussed, as a function of the parametrization employed for the isovector part of the nuclear interaction. We find that the reaction path, particularly the mechanism of fragmentation, is different in the two models and reflects on some properties of the reaction products, including their isospin content. This should be taken into account in the study of the density dependence of the symmetry energy from such collisions.},
author = {Colonna, M. and Ono, A. and Rizzo, J.},
citeulike-article-id = {8500030},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.82.054613},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v82/i5/e054613},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v82/i5/e054613},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.82.054613},
journal = {Physical Review C},
month = nov,
number = {5},
pages = {054613},
posted-at = {2011-01-03 13:55:18},
priority = {2},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Fragmentation paths in dynamical models},
volume = {82},
year = {2010}
}
@article{Yang1999Oddeven,
title = {Odd-even \textit{Z} isospin anomaly in heavy-ion reactions},
author = {Yang, L. B. and Norbeck, E. and Friedman, W. A. and Bjarki, O. and Ingram, F. D. and Lacey, R. A. and Magestro, D. J. and Miller, M. L. and Nadasen, A. and Pak, R. and Stone, N. T. B. and Vander Molen, A. M. and Westfall, G. D. and Yennello, S. J.},
journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
volume = {60},
issue = {4},
pages = {041602},
numpages = {4},
year = {1999},
month = {Sep}
}
@article{Ademard2011Decay,
title = {Decay of excited nuclei produced in $^{78,82}\mathrm{Kr}$$+$$^{40}\mathrm{Ca}$ reactions at 5.5 MeV/nucleon},
author = {Ademard, G. and Wieleczko, J. P. and Gomez del Campo, J. and La Commara, M. and Bonnet, E. and Vigilante, M. and Chbihi, A. and Frankland, J. D. and Rosato, E. and Spadaccini, G. and Kalandarov, Sh. A. and Beck, C. and Barlini, S. and Borderie, B. and Bougault, R. and Dayras, R. and De Angelis, G. and De Sanctis, J. and Kravchuk, V. L. and Lautesse, P. and Le Neindre, N. and Moisan, J. and D'Onofrio, A. and Parlog, M. and Pierroutsakou, D. and Rivet, M. F. and Romoli, M. and Roy, R. and Adamian, G. G. and Antonenko, N. V.},
journal = {Phys. Rev. C},
volume = {83},
issue = {5},
pages = {054619},
numpages = {14},
year = {2011},
month = {May}
}
@article{Frankland2001Multifragmentation,
abstract = {The properties of fragments and light charged particles emitted in multifragmentation of single sources formed in central 36 A {MeV} {GdU} collisions are reviewed. Most of the products are isotropically distributed in the reaction c.m. Fragment kinetic energies reveal the onset of radial collective energy. A bulk effect is experimentally evidenced from the similarity of the charge distribution with that from the lighter 32 A {MeV} {XeSn} system. Spinodal decomposition of finite nuclear matter exhibits the same property in simulated central collisions for the two systems, and appears therefore as a possible mechanism at the origin of multifragmentation in this incident energy domain.},
author = {Frankland, J.},
citeulike-article-id = {8384107},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0375-9474(00)00607-2},
day = {2},
doi = {10.1016/S0375-9474(00)00607-2},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
month = jul,
number = {3-4},
pages = {940--964},
posted-at = {2010-12-08 12:55:39},
priority = {0},
title = {Multifragmentation of a very heavy nuclear system ({II}): bulk properties and spinodal decomposition},
volume = {689},
year = {2001}
}
@article{Frankland2001Multifragmentation,
abstract = {A sample of 'single-source' events, compatible with the multifragmentation of very heavy fused systems, are isolated among well-measured {155Gd}{natU} 36 A {MeV} reactions by examining the evolution of the kinematics of fragments with Z5 as a function of the dissipated energy and loss of memory of the entrance channel. Single-source events are found to be the result of very central collisions. Such central collisions may also lead to multiple fragment emission due to the decay of excited projectile- and target-like nuclei and so-called 'neck' emission, and for this reason the isolation of single-source events is very difficult. Event-selection criteria based on centrality of collisions, or on the isotropy of the emitted fragments in each event, are found to be inefficient to separate the two mechanisms, unless they take into account the redistribution of fragments' kinetic energies into directions perpendicular to the beam axis. The selected events are good candidates to look for bulk effects in the multifragmentation process.},
author = {Frankland, J.},
citeulike-article-id = {8383419},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0375-9474(00)00606-0},
day = {2},
doi = {10.1016/S0375-9474(00)00606-0},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
month = jul,
number = {3-4},
pages = {905--939},
posted-at = {2010-12-08 11:02:05},
priority = {0},
title = {Multifragmentation of a very heavy nuclear system (I): selection of single-source events},
volume = {689},
year = {2001}
}
@article{Lecolley1996Reaction,
abstract = {Events in which at least 5 fragments with charge larger than 8 were emitted in dissipative Pb Au collisions at 29 {MeV}/u incident energy are studied. An event by event shape analysis is performed and a prescription is proposed to select the most central collisions. For these latter, it is shown by comparing the data with the results of computer simulations that the di-nuclear system disassembles before re-separating, meaning that its lifetime is smaller than the interaction time. This conclusion is also supported qualitatively by studying light particle patterns.},
author = {Lecolley, J.},
citeulike-article-id = {8383245},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(96)01068-4},
doi = {10.1016/0370-2693(96)01068-4},
journal = {Physics Letters B},
month = oct,
number = {3},
pages = {460--465},
posted-at = {2010-12-08 10:44:11},
priority = {0},
title = {Reaction mechanism in highly fragmented Pb Au collisions at 29 {MeV}/u},
volume = {387},
year = {1996}
}
@article{Gregoire1987Semiclassical,
abstract = {We present a semi-classical approach of the heavy-ion collision theory in the intermediate energy domain (10–100 {MeV} incident kinetic energy per nucleon) based on the Vlasov equation and its extension — the {Landau-Vlasov} equation — when the residual interaction is accounted for through a collision kernel. We use the coherent state set as an overcomplete basis for the decomposition of the nuclear phase-space distributions. We show that the uniform repartition of coherent states in phase space provides semi-classical descriptions of nuclei at equilibrium which are the correct initial conditions of the Vlasov and {Landau-Vlasov} dynamical equations. In the slab geometry, we compare the results of the Vlasov equation with those of the {TDHF} theory for the crossing of a potential barrier and the collision of two slabs. We present sample results of three-dimensional calculations of heavy-ion collisions with a Skyrme self-consistent interaction and inclusion of the Coulomb interaction; the individual collisions being described by the {Uehling-Uhlenbeck} kernel. These calculations illustrate the incomplete fusion process for central collisions at 27 {MeV}/u incident energy and the onset of an abrasion-like process for more peripheral collisions at 35 {MeV}/u.},
author = {Gr\'{e}goire, C.},
citeulike-article-id = {8382971},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9474(87)90437-4},
day = {6},
doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(87)90437-4},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
keywords = {landau-vlasov},
month = apr,
number = {2},
pages = {317--338},
posted-at = {2010-12-08 09:51:17},
priority = {2},
title = {Semi-classical dynamics of heavy-ion reactions},
volume = {465},
year = {1987}
}
@article{Borderie1993Coulomb,
abstract = {Simulations, based on the {Landau-Vlasov} model, of central collisions (b=0−3 fm) between very heavy nuclei around 30 {MeV} per nucleon reveal the occurence of the Coulomb instability as already predicted by static calculations of hot nuclei a few years ago. The Coulomb instability shows itself in the formation of unstable bubbles.},
author = {Borderie, B.},
citeulike-article-id = {8382803},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(93)90628-U},
day = {18},
doi = {10.1016/0370-2693(93)90628-U},
journal = {Physics Letters B},
month = mar,
number = {1},
pages = {15--17},
posted-at = {2010-12-08 09:23:49},
priority = {0},
title = {Coulomb instability in collisions between very heavy nuclei around 30 {MeV} per nucleon},
volume = {302},
year = {1993}
}
@article{Mulgin2009Modal,
abstract = {Mass and energy distributions of fragments from fission of target nuclei {232Th} and {235U} induced by the 10.3–30.0 {MeV} protons have been measured with surface-barrier silicon detectors. A new method for decomposition of experimental distributions into fragment mass and energy yields of four independent fission modes has been proposed. Main characteristics of fission modes such as distinct mode mass yields, mean masses and kinetic energies as well as variances in fragment masses and energies have been studied in relation with energy of protons. Revealed regularities in these quantities for given energy range of incident protons support the assumption that the modes S1 and S2 are initially formed in a unified asymmetric fission valley.},
author = {Mulgin, S. I. and Zhdanov, S. V. and Kondratiev, N. A. and Kovalchuk, K. V. and Rusanov},
citeulike-article-id = {4914777},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.03.013},
day = {01},
doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.03.013},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
month = jun,
number = {1-4},
pages = {1--23},
posted-at = {2010-11-03 16:06:00},
priority = {4},
title = {The modal structure of fragment mass and energy yields from the 10.3–30.0 {MeV} proton induced fission of {232Th} and {235U}},
volume = {824},
year = {2009}
}
@article{DAgostino2002Reliability,
abstract = {A global protocol for the thermostatistical analysis of hot nuclear sources is discussed. Within our method of minimization of variances we show that the abnormal kinetic energy fluctuation signal recently reported in different experimental data from the {MULTICS} and {INDRA} collaborations is a genuine signal of a first-order phase transition in a finite system.},
author = {D'Agostino, M.},
citeulike-article-id = {8068822},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0375-9474(01)01287-8},
day = {11},
doi = {10.1016/S0375-9474(01)01287-8},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
month = mar,
number = {3-4},
pages = {795--818},
posted-at = {2010-10-22 13:29:00},
priority = {0},
title = {On the reliability of negative heat capacity measurements},
volume = {699},
year = {2002}
}
@article{Sauer1976Thermal,
abstract = {Thermal properties of finite nuclei are investigated using the thermal {Hartree-Fock} approximation. Particular emphasis is placed on the temperature dependence of liquid drop model parameters and of geometrical properties of nuclei. The surface effects have been determined by separating the bulk properties of nuclear matter, obtained from an equation of state, from the results for finite nuclei. Explicit numerical expressions are given for the temperature dependence of the various quantities.},
author = {Sauer, G.},
citeulike-article-id = {8068138},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9474(76)90429-2},
day = {28},
doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(76)90429-2},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
month = jun,
number = {2},
pages = {221--243},
posted-at = {2010-10-22 11:30:20},
priority = {0},
title = {Thermal properties of nuclei},
volume = {264},
year = {1976}
}
@article{Huang2010Novel,
abstract = {Isoscaling is derived within a recently proposed modified Fisher model where the free energy near the critical point is described by the Landau O(m6) theory. In this model is the order parameter, a consequence of (one of) the symmetries of the nuclear Hamiltonian. Within this framework we show that isoscaling depends mainly on this order parameter through the 'external (conjugate) field' H. The external field is just given by the difference in chemical potentials of the neutrons and protons of the two sources. To distinguish from previously employed isoscaling relationships, this approach is dubbed: m-scaling. We discuss the relationship between this framework and the standard isoscaling formalism and point out some substantial differences in interpretation of experimental results which might result. These should be investigated further both theoretically and experimentally.},
author = {Huang, M. and Chen, Z. and Kowalski, S. and Wada, R. and Keutgen, T. and Hagel, K. and Wang, J. and Qin, L. and Natowitz, J. B. and Materna, T.},
citeulike-article-id = {7959926},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2010.07.004},
day = {20},
doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2010.07.004},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
keywords = {isoscaling},
month = jul,
posted-at = {2010-10-08 12:25:58},
priority = {3},
title = {A novel approach to isoscaling: The role of the order parameter {m=Nf}−{ZfAf}},
year = {2010}
}
@article{Sneppen1987Partitioning,
abstract = {The general problem of partitioning a finite system consisting of two kinds of particles is solved. Average frequencies of clusters are calculated under the assumption that all partitions are equally probable. Some restrictions to this assumption are considered. In the nuclear case where we have protons and neutrons we have utilized a method of generating partitions in order to calculate the isotopic yields of fragmenting nuclei. The results imply that the neutron/proton and dineutron/diproton ratios might be good probes for the excitation energy of an asymmetric fragmenting nuclear system.},
author = {Sneppen, K.},
citeulike-article-id = {7927136},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9474(87)90129-1},
day = {17},
doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(87)90129-1},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
month = aug,
number = {1},
pages = {213--229},
posted-at = {2010-09-30 11:12:16},
priority = {5},
title = {Partitioning of a two component particle system and the isotope distribution in nuclear fragmentation},
volume = {470},
year = {1987}
}
@article{Engelbrecht1991Fermi,
abstract = {In this paper the derivation of nuclear level densities from a Fermi gas treatment of the nucleons is surveyed. In fact, there are three classes of Fermi gas models: the infinite, in which an unlimited number of fermions are available for excitation, the finite, in which this number is finite but the single-particle spectrum is unbounded, and the truncated Fermi gas ({TFG}), where this spectrum consists of a finite number of levels. Exact calculations within the {TFG} are possible by means of combinatorial methods, while the finite model may be analysed by assuming that the assumptions of statistical mechanics apply to the numbers of nucleons in a nucleus and then using a saddle point approximation. The standard Bethe formulae actually correspond to the infinite model and apply to the other models only in the low-energy limit. Furthermore, at very low energies they do not approximate any of the models with high accuracy and should there be corrected, as indicated in the text. For high-energy or high-temperature applications, it is essential to take into account the effects of truncation. The {TFG} is constructed here in a way which accommodates the two main features in which the results for real interacting nucleons should differ from the Fermi gas picture. In order to make the {TFG} results accessible for practical applications without having to perform the cumbersome combinatorial calculations for each case of interest, simple approximations are presented for the nuclear level densities, as well as the closely related canonical partition functions, as obtained by means of calculations using the truncated Fermi gas model.},
author = {Engelbrecht, C. and Engelbrecht, J.},
citeulike-article-id = {7924532},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-4916(91)90176-9},
doi = {10.1016/0003-4916(91)90176-9},
journal = {Annals of Physics},
month = apr,
number = {1},
pages = {1--37},
posted-at = {2010-09-29 15:29:43},
priority = {4},
title = {Fermi gas descriptions of nuclear level densities},
volume = {207},
year = {1991}
}
@article{Bethe1936Attempt,
abstract = {Experiments on slow neutrons, and theoretical considerations of Bohr have shown that heavy nuclei possess an enormous number of energy levels which are very closely spaced if the nucleus is highly excited. A crude method is suggested for calculating the spacing between these levels. The method is statistical: The individual nuclear particles are supposed to move in a simple potential hole, and the energy of the complete nucleus is supposed to be the sum of the energies of the individual particles. A critical discussion of these assumptions is given in section 5. The problem then reduces itself to the calculation of the "entropy" of a Fermi gas containing a given number of particles A and having a given excitation energy Q above the zero point energy of the Fermi gas (cf. section 2 and 3). This calculation gives the total number of levels of the complete nucleus in a given energy interval irrespective of the angular momentum, which will, for most of the levels, be very large. For the theory of neutron capture, it is necessary to calculate the density of nuclear levels with a given angular momentum I (section 4). The spacing of nuclear levels is found to depend on the product of the mass number A and the excitation energy Q of the nucleus, and to be roughly given by {Δ=4.1·106x4e-x/(2I1) volts}{x,=(AQ)1/2/2.20,} Q being expressed in MV and I being the nuclear spin. For the capture of slow neutrons by nuclei of medium weight (A around 100), Δ is of the order 50 to 500 volts. The spacing between adjacent levels decreases rapidly with increasing atomic weight. For given atomic weight, the spacing of the nuclear levels responsible for neutron capture is wider if the capture leads to the formation of a radioactive nucleus than if a stable nucleus is formed. This explains the experimental fact that only moderately large cross sections are found for the capture of thermal neutrons leading to radioactive nuclei while the very largest cross sections are all connected with the formation of stable nuclei. The dependence of the spacing on various factors is discussed (section 6); the results seem to be in qualitative agreement with experiment.},
author = {Bethe, H. A.},
citeulike-article-id = {7924365},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.50.332},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PR/v50/i4/p332},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PR/v50/i4/p332},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRev.50.332},
journal = {Physical Review Online Archive (Prola)},
month = aug,
number = {4},
pages = {332--341},
posted-at = {2010-09-29 15:05:30},
priority = {0},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {An Attempt to Calculate the Number of Energy Levels of a Heavy Nucleus},
volume = {50},
year = {1936}
}
@article{ElNadi1959Characteristic,
abstract = {The suggestions put forward by Bethe and Hurwitz that level densities ought to be measured from a standard energy, such as is given by the semi-empirical formula, and not from nuclear ground states is considered. The semi-empirical formula is corrected, following P. Fong, and this ” characteristic level” is determined for nuclei from A = 10 to A = 250. The experimental data of D. Hughes et al. for the fast neutron cross sections are used to determine the level densities for the corresponding nuclei. These were found to be in agreement with the Fermi-gas model.},
author = {El-Nadi, M.},
citeulike-article-id = {7924274},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0029-5582(58)90319-5},
doi = {10.1016/0029-5582(58)90319-5},
journal = {Nuclear Physics},
number = {1},
pages = {22--31},
posted-at = {2010-09-29 14:45:38},
priority = {2},
title = {The characteristic level and the nuclear level density},
volume = {9},
year = {1959}
}
@article{Glendenning1986Liquidgas,
abstract = {The equation of state of nuclear matter at finite temperature and density is calculated in a relativistic field theory of interacting baryons and mesons. At subnuclear densities there exists a liquid-gas phase transition with a critical point at Tc=17.3 {MeV}, nc=0.052 fm-3. We estimate the critical beam energy in symmetric headon nucleus-nucleus collisions for which the exploding nuclear matter passes through the critical point. The dynamics of phase separation is studied in the extreme limits of no dissipation and maximum dissipation.},
author = {Glendenning, N. K. and Csernai, L. P. and Kapusta, J. I.},
citeulike-article-id = {7924123},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.33.1299},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v33/i4/p1299},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v33/i4/p1299},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.33.1299},
journal = {Physical Review C},
month = apr,
number = {4},
pages = {1299--1302},
posted-at = {2010-09-29 14:22:22},
priority = {0},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Liquid-gas phase separation in nuclear collisions},
volume = {33},
year = {1986}
}
@article{Csernai1985Possible,
abstract = {The dynamics of the first-order liquid-gas phase transition in the final expansion stage of a high-energy heavy-ion collision is studied. The high entropy values extracted from light-particle abundances measured at low bombarding energies, {Elab=(50-300)A} {MeV}, are explained as a consequence of the liquid-gas phase coexistence at the breakup of the nuclear matter.},
author = {Csernai, L\'{a}szlo P.},
citeulike-article-id = {7923692},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.54.639},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v54/i7/p639},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRL/v54/i7/p639},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.54.639},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
month = feb,
number = {7},
pages = {639--642},
posted-at = {2010-09-29 13:11:52},
priority = {4},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Possible Solution to the Entropy Puzzle in {Heavy-Ion} Collisions},
volume = {54},
year = {1985}
}
@article{Bondorf1985Statistical,
abstract = {A statistical formulation of the multifragmentation of finite nuclei is given. The approach considers the generalization of the liquid-drop model for hot nuclei and allows one to calculate thermodynamic quantities characterizing the nuclear ensemble at the disassembly stage. It is shown how to determine probabilities of definite partitions of finite nuclei and how to apply a Monte Carlo method. The importance of including finite-size effects is shown by comparison with infinite-like systems.},
author = {Bondorf, J.},
citeulike-article-id = {7923690},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9474(85)90266-0},
day = {30},
doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(85)90266-0},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
month = sep,
number = {2},
pages = {321--347},
posted-at = {2010-09-29 13:10:53},
priority = {0},
title = {Statistical multifragmentation of nuclei (I). Formulation of the model},
volume = {443},
year = {1985}
}
@article{Gross1993Multifragmentation,
abstract = {Nuclear multifragmentation is viewed as the natural extension of nuclear fission towards higher excitations. The role of the fissility to trigger sequential fragmentation and later simultaneous multifragmentation is shown in a simple analytical example. At even higher excitation nuclear multifragmentation continues into the liquid to gas transition of a finite piece of nuclear matter. With the help of microcanonical {Metropolis-Monte} Carlo we study multifragmentation as a realistic example of thermodynamics of a finite many-body system subjected to long-range forces using the most basic principles of statistical physics. This allows for a consistent calculation of the entropy including its non trivial partitional part. In the case of nuclear fragmentation it is essentially different from the expression used in the literature. We find a proper phase-transition with a rapid rise of the entropy linked to the onset of statistical fragmentation into several large fragments: A situation quite singular in nuclear physics but generic for many other fields in physics e.g. astrophysics and atomic clusters.},
author = {Gross, D.},
citeulike-article-id = {7921699},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0146-6410(93)90017-A},
doi = {10.1016/0146-6410(93)90017-A},
journal = {Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics},
pages = {155--164},
posted-at = {2010-09-29 11:20:29},
priority = {0},
title = {Multifragmentation, link between fission and the liquid-gas phase-transition},
volume = {30},
year = {1993}
}
@article{Pochodzalla1995Probing,
abstract = {Fragment distributions resulting from {AuAu} collisions at an incident energy of {E/A} = 600 {MeV} are studied. From the measured fragment and neutron distributions the mass and the excitation energy of the decaying prefragments were determined. A temperature scale was derived from observed yield ratios of He and Li isotopes. The relation between this isotope temperature and the excitation energy of the system exhibits a behavior which is expected for a phase transition. The nuclear vapor regime takes over at an excitation energy of 10 {MeV} per nucleon, a temperature of 5 {MeV}, and may be characterized by a density of 0.15–0.3 normal nuclear density.},
author = {Pochodzalla, J. and M\"{o}hlenkamp, T. and Rubehn, T. and Sch\"{u}ttauf, A. and W\"{o}rner, A. and Zude, E. and Blaich, M. Begemann and Th and Emling, H. and Ferrero, A. and Gross, C. and Imm\'{e}, G. and Iori, I. and Kunde, G. J. and Kunze, W. D. and Lindenstruth, V. and Lynen, U. and Moroni, A. and M\"{u}ller, W. F. J. and Ocker, B. and Raciti, G. and Sann, H. and Schwarz, C. and Seidel, W. and Serfling, V. and Stroth, J. and Trautmann, W. and Trzcinski, A. and Tucholski, A. and Verde, G. and Zwieglinski, B.},
citeulike-article-id = {7921648},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.75.1040},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v75/i6/p1040},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRL/v75/i6/p1040},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.75.1040},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
month = aug,
number = {6},
pages = {1040--1043},
posted-at = {2010-09-29 11:11:54},
priority = {0},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Probing the Nuclear {Liquid-Gas} Phase Transition},
volume = {75},
year = {1995}
}
@article{Chomaz2004Nuclear,
abstract = {Spinodal multifragmentation in nuclear physics is reviewed. Considering first spinodal instability within the general framework of thermodynamics, we discuss the intimate relationship between first-order phase-transitions and convexity anomalies in the thermodynamic potentials, clarify the relationship between mechanical and chemical instability in two-component systems, and also address finite systems. Then we analyze the onset of spinodal fragmentation by various linear-response methods. Using the Landau theory of collective modes in bulk matter as a starting point, we first review the application of mean-field methods for the identification of the unstable collective modes and the determination of their structure and the associated dispersion relations yielding their growth rates. Subsequently, the corresponding results for finite nuclei are addressed and, within the random-phase approximation, we establish the connection between unstable modes in dilute systems and giant resonances in hot nuclei. Then we turn to the temporal evolution of the unstable systems, discussing first how the dynamics changes its character from being initially linear towards being chaotic and then considering the growth of initially agitated instabilities within the framework of one-body dynamics. We review especially the body of work relating to the {Boltzmann–Langevin} model, in which the stochastic part of the residual two-body collisions provides a well-defined noise that may agitate the collective modes. We seek to assess the utility of various approximate treatments, including brownian one-body dynamics, and discuss the many possible refinements of the basic treatment. After these primarily formal or idealized studies, we turn to the applications to nuclear multifragmentation and review the various investigations of whether the bulk of the collision zone becomes spinodally unstable. Fragmentation studies with both many-body and stochastic one-body models are discussed and we address the emerging topic of isospin fractionation. We then make contact with experimental data which indicates that the spinodal region is being entered under suitable conditions and we discuss in particular recent results on multifragment size correlations that appear to present signals of spinodal fragmentation. It is demonstrated how various aspects of the data can be understood both qualitatively and quantitatively within the stochastic one-body framework, thus strongly suggesting that nuclear spinodal fragmentation indeed occurs. We finally outline perspectives for further advances on the topic and make connections to current progress on related issues.},
author = {Chomaz, P.},
citeulike-article-id = {7889304},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physrep.2003.09.006},
doi = {10.1016/j.physrep.2003.09.006},
journal = {Physics Reports},
keywords = {spinodal-decomposition},
month = jan,
number = {5-6},
pages = {263--440},
posted-at = {2010-09-23 14:28:52},
priority = {0},
title = {Nuclear spinodal fragmentation},
volume = {389},
year = {2004}
}
@article{Cavata1990Determination,
abstract = {A simple method is proposed for determining the impact parameter in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. Assuming a monotonous correlation between multiplicity and impact parameter, the multiplicity dependence of the measured cross section is interpreted as an impact-parameter dependence of the geometrical reaction cross section. The reliability of this method is checked to be excellent within the framework of the intranuclear cascade model. Its application to data analysis at lower and higher energies is suggested.},
author = {Cavata, C. and Demoulins, M. and Gosset, J. and Lemaire, M. C. and L'H\^{o}te, D. and Poitou, J. and Valette, O.},
citeulike-article-id = {7846735},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.42.1760},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v42/i4/p1760},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v42/i4/p1760},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.42.1760},
journal = {Physical Review C},
month = oct,
number = {4},
pages = {1760--1763},
posted-at = {2010-09-17 11:06:15},
priority = {0},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Determination of the impact parameter in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions},
volume = {42},
year = {1990}
}
@article{Gross1991Comment,
abstract = {There is considerable danger in the use of a method to sample the microcanonical momentum distribution that was recently suggested by Lopez and Randrup.},
author = {Gross, D.},
citeulike-article-id = {7816123},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9474(91)90087-M},
day = {28},
doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(91)90087-M},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
month = jan,
number = {3-4},
pages = {648--650},
posted-at = {2010-09-13 13:43:56},
priority = {2},
title = {Comment on the sampling of the microcanonical momentum distribution},
volume = {522},
year = {1991}
}
@article{Lopez1989Multifragmentation,
abstract = {To elucidate the observable distinctions between different reaction mechanisms for multifragment production in nuclear collisions at intermediate energies, we contrast two opposite extremes: sequential binary fission and simultaneous multifragment breakup (true multifragmentation). For identical multifragment channels produced by these two idealized mechanisms, we examine the kinetic-energy spectra and the correlated velocity distributions of the fragments and discuss the possibility of identifying informative multifragment observables.},
author = {Lopez, J. and Randrup, J.},
citeulike-article-id = {7807143},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9474(89)90581-2},
day = {16},
doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(89)90581-2},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
month = jan,
number = {3},
pages = {477--491},
posted-at = {2010-09-10 15:03:56},
priority = {2},
title = {Multifragmentation versus sequential fission: Observable differences?},
volume = {491},
year = {1989}
}
@article{Zhang1987Decay,
abstract = {Nuclear fragmentation at excitation energies between ˜10 {MeV} and 2 {GeV} is simulated by a microcanonical Metropolis sampling method. Contrary to the usual canonical description of compound nucleus decay the total energy, momentum, mass, and charge are strictly conserved quantities. No artificial heat bath is needed. The mass distributions and energy spectra are in good agreement with the data of nuclear fragmentations induced by highly energetic protons.},
author = {Zhang, X.},
citeulike-article-id = {7807134},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9474(87)90415-5},
day = {12},
doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(87)90415-5},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
month = jan,
number = {3-4},
pages = {668--690},
posted-at = {2010-09-10 14:58:27},
priority = {2},
title = {On the decay of very hot nuclei ({II}). Microcanonical metropolis sampling of multifragmentation},
volume = {461},
year = {1987}
}
@article{Randrup1991Microcanonical,
abstract = {The method recently employed by L\'{o}pez and Randrup presents a simple, efficient, and
exact procedure for sampling of the microcanonical momentum distribution for classical, non-relativistic many-body systems subject to energy and momentum conservation. Moreover, by straightforward generalization, the method also applies to any combination of linear, radial, and angular momentum conservation.},
author = {Randrup, J.},
citeulike-article-id = {7807115},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9474(91)90088-N},
day = {28},
doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(91)90088-N},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
keywords = {energy\_distribution, finite\_systems, microcanonical\_ensemble},
month = jan,
number = {3-4},
pages = {651--658},
posted-at = {2010-09-10 14:48:27},
priority = {2},
title = {Microcanonical sampling of momenta},
volume = {522},
year = {1991}
}
@book{1964Handbook,
citeulike-article-id = {7806268},
editor = {Abramowitz, M. and Stegun, I. A.},
isbn = {978-0-486-61272-0},
posted-at = {2010-09-10 08:02:39},
priority = {2},
publisher = {National Bureau of Standards},
series = {Applied Mathematics Series},
title = {Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables},
year = {1964}
}
@article{Olness1974Statistical,
abstract = {The three examples of ideal gas, square well, and harmonic oscillator particles illustrate the equivalence of the constant-energy and constant-temperature descriptions of statistical mechanics if the number of degrees of freedom is large. Significant differences between these descriptions appear, however, in the opposite extreme, i.e., the few-particle limit. The analysis presented here supports the conclusion that three degrees of freedom are necessary to localize a particle in the oscillator potential. This result is discussed in connection with the stability (finite rms particle displacement) of three-dimensional harmonic crystals.},
author = {Olness, R. J. and Hoover, W. G.},
citeulike-article-id = {7802701},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal\&id=AJPIAS000042000007000584000001\&idtype=cvips\&gifs=yes},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aip.org/link/?AJP/42/584},
journal = {American Journal of Physics},
keywords = {finite\_systems},
number = {7},
pages = {584--590},
posted-at = {2010-09-09 15:43:46},
priority = {2},
publisher = {AAPT},
title = {Statistical Analysis of Classical {Few-Particle} Systems},
volume = {42},
year = {1974}
}
@article{Shirts2006Periodic,
abstract = {We examine consequences of the {non-Boltzmann} nature of probability distributions for one-particle kinetic energy, momentum, and velocity for finite systems of classical hard spheres with constant total energy and nonidentical masses. By comparing two cases, reflecting walls ({NVE} or microcanonical ensemble) and periodic boundaries ({NVEPG} or molecular dynamics ensemble), we describe three consequences of the center-of-mass constraint in periodic boundary conditions: the equipartition theorem no longer holds for unequal masses, the ratio of the average relative velocity to the average velocity is increased by a factor of [{N/(N}-1)]1/2, and the ratio of average collision energy to average kinetic energy is increased by a factor of {N/(N}-1). Simulations in one, two, and three dimensions confirm the analytic results for arbitrary dimension.},
address = {Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602-5700, USA.},
author = {Shirts, Randall B. and Burt, Scott R. and Johnson, Aaron M.},
citeulike-article-id = {1948162},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2359432},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://view.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17092058},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://www.hubmed.org/display.cgi?uids=17092058},
day = {28},
doi = {10.1063/1.2359432},
journal = {The Journal of Chemical Physics},
keywords = {energy\_distribution, finite\_size\_effects, finite\_systems, microcanonical\_ensemble, molecular\_dynamics},
month = oct,
number = {16},
pages = {164102},
pmid = {17092058},
posted-at = {2010-09-09 14:52:37},
priority = {5},
title = {Periodic boundary condition induced breakdown of the equipartition principle and other kinetic effects of finite sample size in classical hard-sphere molecular dynamics simulation},
volume = {125},
year = {2006}
}
@article{Cagin1988Fundamental,
abstract = {In microcanonical molecular dynamics the conservation of total momentum implies that the trajectories generate an ensemble with constant total momentum. We present the exact statistical mechanics of this microcanonical molecular dynamics ensemble. Using the adiabatic invariant phase volume to define the entropy, exact formulas, containing thermodynamic response functions, are derived for the microcanonical molecular dynamics ensemble and a numerical comparison of these formulas is made with fluctuation formulas which are valid in the thermodynamic limit and often used in molecular dynamics. No significant difference is found between the results calculated using the different formulas for a system of 432 particles; however, for simulations with small numbers of particles or small-cluster studies, the differences could be important.},
author = {\c{C}agin, Tahir and Ray, John R.},
citeulike-article-id = {7802549},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.37.247},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRA/v37/i1/p247},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRA/v37/i1/p247},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.37.247},
journal = {Physical Review A},
keywords = {energy\_distribution, finite\_systems, microcanonical\_ensemble, microcanonical\_entropy, molecular\_dynamics},
month = jan,
number = {1},
pages = {247--251},
posted-at = {2010-09-09 13:33:59},
priority = {5},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Fundamental treatment of molecular-dynamics ensembles},
volume = {37},
year = {1988}
}
@article{Roman1995Singleparticle,
abstract = {The exact results for the single-particle momentum distribution of a small system in the microcanonical ensemble [J. R. Ray and H. W. Graben, Phys. Rev. A 44, 6905 (1991)] are extended to the case of the molecular-dynamics ensemble. Both cases are applied to systems with a reduced number of hard disks. Comparison with molecular-dynamics simulation illustrates the ergodicity of the studied systems.},
author = {Rom\'{a}n, F. L. and White, J. A. and Velasco, S.},
citeulike-article-id = {7801023},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.51.6271},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRE/v51/i6/p6271},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRE/v51/i6/p6271},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.51.6271},
journal = {Physical Review E},
keywords = {finite\_systems, microcanonical\_ensemble},
month = jun,
number = {6},
pages = {6271--6274},
posted-at = {2010-09-08 16:12:40},
priority = {5},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Single-particle distributions for small hard particle systems in the microcanonical and in the molecular-dynamics ensembles},
volume = {51},
year = {1995}
}
@article{Schluter1948Zur,
author = {Schl\"{u}ter, H.},
citeulike-article-id = {7800947},
journal = {Zeitschrift f\"{u}r Naturforschung A},
keywords = {energy\_distribution, finite\_systems, microcanonical\_ensemble},
pages = {350},
posted-at = {2010-09-08 15:41:33},
priority = {2},
title = {Zur Statistik klassischer Gesamtheiten},
volume = {3},
year = {1948}
}
@article{Challa1986Finitesize,
abstract = {We study the finite-size effects at a temperature-driven first-order transition by analyzing various moments of the energy distribution. The distribution function for the energy is approximated by the superposition of two weighted Gaussian functions yielding quantitative estimates for various quantities and scaling form for the specific heat. The rounding of the singularities and the shifts in the location of the specific-heat maximum are analyzed and the characteristic features of a first-order transition are identified. The predictions are tested on the ten-state Potts model in two dimensions by carrying out extensive Monte Carlo calculations. The results are found to be in good agreement with theory. Comparison is made with the second-order transitions in the two- and three-state Potts models.},
author = {Challa, Murty S. S. and Landau, D. P. and Binder, K.},
citeulike-article-id = {3716330},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.34.1841},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v34/i3/p1841},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRB/v34/i3/p1841},
day = {1},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.34.1841},
journal = {Physical Review B},
keywords = {bimodality, finite\_size\_effects, finite\_systems, first\_order\_phase\_transition, specific\_heat},
month = aug,
number = {3},
pages = {1841--1852},
posted-at = {2010-09-08 10:17:25},
priority = {2},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Finite-size effects at temperature-driven first-order transitions},
volume = {34},
year = {1986}
}
@article{Bixon1989Energetic,
abstract = {In this paper we explore the interrelationship between the energetics and the thermodynamic properties of molecular clusters. We advance simple models for the energy spectrum, which are used to derive analytical results for the thermodynamic properties of these clusters. The energy spectrum is characterized by the distribution of the energies of the local minima of the nuclear potential energy hypersurface, i.e., the inherent structures. On each of these energy levels the vibrational density of states of the particular inherent structure is superimposed. The energy spectra were specified in terms of the energy gap, Δ, between the (single) ground state and the excited‐state inherent structures, the number, R, of the inherent structures and their energetic spread W. Four classes of energy spectra were considered. (1) A large energy gap with nearly degenerate excited‐state manifold, i.e., {Δ≫W}. (2) A large energy gap with a considerable spread of the excited‐state manifold, i.e., {Δ≪W} and {W/R}≪Δ. (3) A gapless spectrum with {W/R}≳Δ. (4) A multiple bunched spectrum with several energy gaps. Explicit analytical relations for the temperature dependence of the internal energy were derived for energy spectra of types (1), (2), and (3) both for the canonical and for the microcanonical ensembles. For energy spectra of types (1) and (2) the caloric curve exhibits a single inflection, which marks the ''transition''. A unified description of multistate isomerization with large R, which corresponds to rare‐gas clusters, and of molecular isomerization with R≂1, which prevails for alkali‐halide clusters, was provided. For energy spectra of type (3) the transition disappears, while for energy spectra of type (4) hierarchical isomerization is exhibited. Our analytical models have established the ensemble dependence of the transition for types (1) and (2), which is manifested by a considerable broadening of the transition range for the canonical ensemble, reflecting the role of energy fluctuations in the finite system.},
author = {Bixon, M. and Jortner, Joshua},
citeulike-article-id = {7797109},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.457123},
doi = {10.1063/1.457123},
journal = {The Journal of Chemical Physics},
keywords = {caloric\_curve, canonical\_ensemble, finite\_systems, microcanonical\_ensemble, molecular\_clusters},
number = {3},
pages = {1631},
posted-at = {2010-09-08 09:25:05},
priority = {2},
title = {Energetic and thermodynamic size effects in molecular clusters},
volume = {91},
year = {1989}
}
@article{Challa1988Gaussian,
abstract = {The recently introduced Gaussian ensemble involves a sample (of size N) thermally connected to a finite heat bath (of size N') with specific properties. Treating N' as a parameter, we use a leading-order analysis of the β (inverse temperature) -{versus-E} (energy of sample) curves to show how static properties of finite samples become ensemble dependent. Inflection points in {β(E}) at phase transitions, however, appear as nontrivial fixed points with respect to N' and are defined as the transition temperature of the sample. By developing a fluctuation relation for the heat capacity C we show that, for small N', states with C<0 are accessible at first-order transitions resulting in van der Waals loops in {β(E}). Monte Carlo studies of phase transitions in Potts models on two- and three-dimensional lattices confirm the {finite-N}' and {finite-N} effects. We find that the method significantly reduces computer time (sometimes by a factor of 100) compared with canonical-ensemble simulations and is effective in diagnosing the order of phase transition. Specific-heat data at second-order transitions reveal a new phenomenon; the peak in C sharpens as N' becomes smaller, leading us to speculate on sharp transitions in finite samples.},
author = {Challa, Murty S. S. and Hetherington, J. H.},
citeulike-article-id = {7797039},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.38.6324},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRA/v38/i12/p6324},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRA/v38/i12/p6324},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.38.6324},
journal = {Physical Review A},
keywords = {caloric\_curve, canonical\_ensemble, finite\_systems, first\_order\_phase\_transition, gaussian\_ensemble, microcanonical\_ensemble, order\_of\_phase\_transition},
month = dec,
number = {12},
pages = {6324--6337},
posted-at = {2010-09-08 08:54:56},
priority = {2},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Gaussian ensemble: An alternate Monte Carlo scheme},
volume = {38},
year = {1988}
}
@article{Gross1997Fragmentation,
abstract = {Within the micro-canonical ensemble phase transitions of first order can be
identified without invoking the thermodynamic limit. We show for the liquid-gas
transition of sodium, potassium, and iron at normal pressure that the
transition temperature, the latent heat as well as the interface surface
tension approach for some 1000 atoms the experimental bulk values. No excursion
to the thermodynamic limit is neccessary. It is often easier to identify the
transition in mesoscopic systems than in the infinite system. It is shown that
the microcanonical {T(E}) contains important information about the transition
which becomes suppressed in the canonical ensemble. The implications for our
understanding of phase transitions in general are discussed. For these finite
metallic systems it is essential to allow for a fragmentation of the system.
Our result demonstrates further that microcanonical Metropolis Monte Carlo
sampling ({MMMC}) is well suited to establish the link between the fragmentation
phase transition in small systems like nuclei and atomic clusters and the
liquid-gas transition of infinite matter.},
archivePrefix = {arXiv},
author = {Gross, D. H. E. and Madjet, M. E.},
citeulike-article-id = {7796901},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/9707100},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/cond-mat/9707100},
day = {25},
eprint = {cond-mat/9707100},
keywords = {canonical\_ensemble, convex\_intruder, equation\_of\_state, finite\_systems, first\_order\_phase\_transition},
month = jul,
posted-at = {2010-09-08 08:25:20},
priority = {2},
title = {Fragmentation Phase Transition in Atomic Clusters {IV} \&\#45;\&\#45; Liquid-gas transition in finite metal clusters and in the bulk \&\#45;\&\#45;},
year = {1997}
}
@article{Gross2000Phase,
abstract = {Traditionally, phase transitions are defined in the thermodynamic limit only.
We propose a new formulation of equilibrium thermo-dynamics that is based
entirely on mechanics and reflects just the {\em geometry and topology} of the
N-body phase-space as function of the conserved quantities, energy, particle
number and others. This allows to define thermo-statistics {\em without the use
of the thermodynamic limit}, to apply it to ``Small'' systems as well and to
define phase transitions unambiguously also there. ``Small'' systems are
systems where the linear dimension is of the characteristic range of the
interaction between the particles. Also astrophysical systems are ``Small'' in
this sense. Boltzmann defines the entropy as the logarithm of the area
\$W(E,N)=e^{S(E,N)}\$ of the surface in the mechanical N-body phase space at
total energy E. The topology of S(E,N) or more precisely, of the curvature
determinant \$D(E,N)=\partial^2S/\partial E^2*\partial^2S/\partial
N^2-(\partial^2S/\partial E\partial N)^2\$ allows the classification of phase
transitions {\em without taking the thermodynamic limit}. The topology gives
further a simple and transparent definition of the {\em order parameter.}
Attention: Boltzmann's entropy S(E) as defined here is different from the
information entropy and can even be non-extensive and convex.},
archivePrefix = {arXiv},
author = {Gross, D. H. E.},
citeulike-article-id = {7795638},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0006087},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/cond-mat/0006087},
day = {6},
eprint = {cond-mat/0006087},
keywords = {convex\_intruder, finite\_systems, first\_order\_phase\_transition, microcanonical\_ensemble, microcanonical\_entropy},
month = jun,
posted-at = {2010-09-07 14:42:49},
priority = {2},
title = {Phase Transitions in "Small" Systems - A Challenge for Thermodynamics},
year = {2000}
}
@article{Gross2000Microcanonical,
abstract = {Non-extensive systems do not allow to go to the thermodynamic limit.
Therefore we have to reformulate statistical mechanics without invoking the
thermodynamical limit. I.e. we have to go back to {Pre-Gibbsian} times. We show
that Boltzmann's mechanical definition of entropy S as function of the
conserved ``extensive'' variables energy E, particle number N etc. allows to
describe even the most sophisticated cases of phase transitions unambiguously
for ``small'' systems like nuclei, atomic clusters, and selfgravitating
astrophysical systems: The rich topology of the curvature of {S(E},N) shows the
whole ``Zoo'' of transitions: transitions of 1.order including the surface
tension at phase-separation, continuous transitions, critical and
multi-critical points. The transitions are the ``catastrophes'' of the Laplace
transform from the ``extensive'' to the ``intensive'' variables. Moreover, this
classification of phase transitions is much more natural than the {Yang-Lee}
criterion.},
archivePrefix = {arXiv},
author = {Gross, D. H. E.},
citeulike-article-id = {7795627},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0004268},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/cond-mat/0004268},
day = {17},
eprint = {cond-mat/0004268},
keywords = {bimodality, coexistence, convex\_intruder, finite\_systems, first\_order\_phase\_transition, microcanonical\_ensemble, microcanonical\_entropy},
month = apr,
posted-at = {2010-09-07 14:39:08},
priority = {5},
title = {Micro-canonical Statistical Mechanics of some {Non-Extensive} Systems},
year = {2000}
}
@article{Shutler2007Schluter,
abstract = {The distribution of molecular speeds for a hard spheres gas in the microcanonical ensemble follows the Schl\"{u}ter distribution when the number of molecules is small, converging to the classical Maxwell distribution in the large number limit. We present a derivation of the Schl\"{u}ter distribution, obtained from Khinchin's derivation of the factorization of the density of states, which is simpler and shorter than those currently available. We also verify its predictions for three-dimensional ({3D}) hard spheres using a desktop computer simulation, whereas previous studies have simulated only {2D} hard discs.},
author = {Shutler, P. M. E. and Springham, S. V. and Martinez, J. C.},
citeulike-article-id = {7756493},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-8949/76/5/011},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://iopscience.iop.org/0031-8949/76/5/011},
day = {01},
doi = {10.1088/0031-8949/76/5/011},
journal = {Physica Scripta},
keywords = {canonical\_ensemble, energy\_distribution, maxwell\_boltzmann, maxwell\_distribution, microcanonical\_ensemble},
month = nov,
number = {5},
pages = {466},
posted-at = {2010-09-02 15:36:35},
priority = {5},
title = {The Schl\"{u}ter distribution: theory and simulation},
volume = {76},
year = {2007}
}
@article{Ray1991Small,
abstract = {The distribution of particle momentum in the canonical ensemble has the well-known Maxwell form. In the microcanonical ensemble this is not the case and the distribution of particle momentum has a different form that approaches the Maxwell form in the thermodynamic limit. Besides their intrinsic interest, these results could be of importance in studies of small systems, such as clusters. Exact results are illustrated for rigid rods, disks, and spheres.},
author = {Ray, John R. and Graben, H. W.},
citeulike-article-id = {7756035},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.44.6905},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRA/v44/i10/p6905},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRA/v44/i10/p6905},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.44.6905},
journal = {Physical Review A},
keywords = {canonical\_ensemble, energy\_distribution, finite\_systems, maxwell\_boltzmann, microcanonical\_ensemble},
month = nov,
number = {10},
pages = {6905--6908},
posted-at = {2010-09-02 11:18:45},
priority = {4},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Small systems have {non-Maxwellian} momentum distributions in the microcanonical ensemble},
volume = {44},
year = {1991}
}
@article{Randrup1979Theory,
abstract = {The nucleons transferred between two colliding nuclei transport charge, mass, linear and angular momentum, and energy. General expressions are obtained for the corresponding transport coefficients by modelling the dinuclear system as two {Fermi-Dirac} gases in contact. The drift and diffusion coefficients are related by a generalized Einstein relation, reflecting the fluctuation-dissipation theorem; particular simplicity arises in the extreme quantal and classical limits. Application of the nuclear proximity method leads to simple factorized formulas valid for a certain general family of binary configurations relevant to nuclear collisions: the corresponding form factors can be estimated in a parameter-free semiclassical ({Thomas-Fermi}) mean-field model of nuclei. A simulation method is suggested for the numerical solution of the ensuing multi-dimensional transport problem.},
author = {Randrup, J.},
citeulike-article-id = {7749757},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9474(79)90271-9},
day = {24},
doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(79)90271-9},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
keywords = {nuclear\_collisions},
month = sep,
number = {2},
pages = {490--516},
posted-at = {2010-08-31 13:51:38},
priority = {2},
title = {Theory of transfer-induced transport in nuclear collisions},
volume = {327},
year = {1979}
}
@article{Charity2010Systematic,
abstract = {To systematically describe evaporation spectra for light and heavy compound nuclei over a large range of excitation energies, it was necessary to consider three ingredients in the statistical model. First, transmission coefficients or barrier penetration factors for charged-particle emission are typically taken from global fits to elastic-scattering data. However, such transmission coefficients do not reproduce the barrier region of evaporation spectra and reproduction of the data requires a distributions of Coulomb barriers. This is possibly associated with large fluctuations in the compound-nucleus shape or density profile. Second, for heavy nuclei, an excitation-energy dependent level-density parameter is required to describe the slope of the exponential tails of these spectra. The level-density parameter was reduced at larger temperatures, consistent with the expected fadeout of long-range correlation, but the strong A dependence of this effect is unexpected. Last, to describe the angular-momentum dependence of the level density in light nuclei at large spins, the macroscopic rotational energy of the nucleus has to be reduced from the values predicted with the finite-range liquid-drop model.},
author = {Charity, R. J.},
citeulike-article-id = {7745252},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.82.014610},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v82/i1/e014610},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v82/i1/e014610},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.82.014610},
journal = {Physical Review C},
keywords = {compound-nucleus, evaporation, level\_density, particle\_emission},
month = jul,
number = {1},
pages = {014610},
posted-at = {2010-08-30 13:02:20},
priority = {2},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Systematic description of evaporation spectra for light and heavy compound nuclei},
volume = {82},
year = {2010}
}
@article{Rios2010Effective,
abstract = {The liquid–gas phase transition for homogeneous symmetric nuclear matter is studied in the mean-field approximation. Critical properties are computed using a comprehensive group of Skyrme and Gogny forces in an effort to elucidate the effective interaction dependence of the results. Analytical models for the thermodynamical and critical properties are discussed and compared to an extensive set of mean-field data. In agreement with these models, a tight correlation is found between the flashing and the critical points. Accurate predictions for the critical temperature, based on saturation properties, can only be obtained after the density dependence of the effective mass is properly taken into account. While the thermodynamical properties coming from different mean-fields do not follow a law of corresponding states, the critical exponents for all the mean-fields have been found to be the same. Their values coincide with those predicted by the Landau mean-field theory of critical phenomena.},
author = {Rios, Arnau},
citeulike-article-id = {7272138},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2010.05.057},
day = {15},
doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2010.05.057},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
keywords = {critical\_exponents, critical\_temperature, effective\_mass, equation\_of\_state, first\_order\_phase\_transition, nuclear-thermodynamics, nuclear\_matter, phase-diagram},
month = nov,
number = {1-4},
pages = {58--87},
posted-at = {2010-07-28 09:41:06},
priority = {3},
title = {Effective interaction dependence of the liquid–gas phase transition in symmetric nuclear matter},
volume = {845},
year = {2010}
}
@article{Moretto2004Reply,
abstract = {The Clapeyron equation is adequate in describing the properties of any finite Van der Waals–like system, including {Ising-Potts} models. Coulomb interaction destroys the generality of solutions for finite systems, and the resulting metastability prevents meaningful application of statistical mechanics. The effective closure of unstable channels by high barriers allows for negative heat capacities only for A <30 .},
author = {Moretto, L. G. and Elliott, J. B. and Phair, L. and Wozniak, G. J.},
citeulike-article-id = {7530839},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.69.069802},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v69/i6/e069802},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v69/i6/e069802},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.69.069802},
journal = {Physical Review C},
keywords = {coulomb\_forces, finite\_systems, negative-heat-capacity},
month = jun,
number = {6},
pages = {069802},
posted-at = {2010-07-22 14:41:22},
priority = {5},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Reply to ``Comment on `Negative heat capacities and first order phase transition in nuclei' ''},
volume = {69},
year = {2004}
}
@article{Moretto2002Negative,
abstract = {Anomalous negative heat capacities have been claimed as indicators of first-order phase transitions in finite systems in general, and for nuclear systems in particular. A thermodynamic approach allowing for all Q -value terms is used to evaluate heat capacities in finite van der Waals fluids and finite lattice systems in the coexistence region. Fictitious large effects and negative heat capacities are observed in lattice systems when periodic boundary conditions are introduced. Small anomalous effects are predicted for small drops and for finite lattice systems. A straightforward application of the analysis to nuclei shows that negative heat capacities cannot be observed for A >60.},
author = {Moretto, L. G. and Elliott, J. B. and Phair, L. and Wozniak, G. J.},
citeulike-article-id = {7530833},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.66.041601},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v66/i4/e041601},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v66/i4/e041601},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.66.041601},
journal = {Physical Review C},
keywords = {finite\_size\_effects, first\_order\_phase\_transition, negative-heat-capacity},
month = oct,
number = {4},
pages = {041601},
posted-at = {2010-07-22 14:36:58},
priority = {0},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Negative heat capacities and first order phase transitions in nuclei},
volume = {66},
year = {2002}
}
@article{Staniscia2010Negative,
abstract = {According to thermodynamics, the specific heat of Boltzmannian short-range interacting systems is a positive quantity. Less intuitive properties are instead displayed by systems characterized by long-range interactions. In that case, the sign of specific heat depends on the considered statistical ensemble: Negative specific heat can be found in isolated systems, which are studied in the framework of the microcanonical ensemble; on the other hand, it is generally recognized that a positive specific heat should always be measured in systems in contact with a thermal bath, for which the canonical ensemble is the appropriate one. We demonstrate that the latter assumption is not generally true: One can, in principle, measure negative specific heat also in the canonical ensemble if the system under scrutiny is {non-Boltzmannian} and/or out-of-equilibrium.},
author = {Staniscia, F. and Turchi, A. and Fanelli, D. and Chavanis, P. H. and De Ninno, G.},
citeulike-article-id = {7530812},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.010601},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v105/i1/e010601},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRL/v105/i1/e010601},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.010601},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
keywords = {canonical\_ensemble, energy\_distribution, equilibration, heat\_capacity, microcanonical\_ensemble, negative-heat-capacity},
month = jul,
number = {1},
pages = {010601},
posted-at = {2010-07-22 14:28:59},
priority = {5},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Negative Specific Heat in the Canonical Statistical Ensemble},
volume = {105},
year = {2010}
}
@article{Gulminelli2004Comment,
abstract = {In a recent paper Moretto et al. [Phys. Rev. C 66 , 041601 (2002)] claim that the negative heat capacities presented in our previously published paper [Chomaz, Duflot, and Gulminelli, Physical Review Letters 85 , 3587 (2000)] are ” artifacts” coming from the use of periodic boundary conditions in the lattice-gas calculations. We stress in this Comment that this claim is wrong: in Chomaz, Duflot, and Gulminelli we did not use periodic boundary conditions and anyhow the boundary conditions are irrelevant for the statistical ensemble used in Chomaz, Duflot, and Gulminelli. The second claim of Moretto et al. is that, because of the Coulomb repulsion, systems ” with A >60 should present no anomalous negative heat capacities.” We show that this conclusion is contradicted by exact lattice-gas simulations including Coulomb forces which present negative heat capacities even for A >200 .},
author = {Gulminelli, F. and Chomaz, Ph},
citeulike-article-id = {7530687},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.69.069801},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v69/i6/e069801},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v69/i6/e069801},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.69.069801},
journal = {Physical Review C},
keywords = {coulomb\_forces, lattice-gas-model, negative-heat-capacity},
month = jun,
number = {6},
pages = {069801},
posted-at = {2010-07-22 14:07:41},
priority = {0},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Comment on ``Negative heat capacities and first order phase transitions in nuclei''},
volume = {69},
year = {2004}
}
@article{Gulminelli2002Failure,
abstract = {In the vicinity of a first-order phase transition, the equation of state might be different when the extensive variable is controlled instead of the intensive one, violating the uniqueness of thermodynamics. A sufficient condition for this nonequivalence to survive at the thermodynamical limit is worked out for classical systems. If energy consists of a kinetic and a potential part, the microcanonical ensemble does not converge towards the canonical ensemble when the kinetic heat capacity is larger than the modulus of the negative interaction heat capacity.},
author = {Gulminelli, F. and Chomaz, Ph},
citeulike-article-id = {7530674},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.66.046108},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRE/v66/i4/e046108},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRE/v66/i4/e046108},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.66.046108},
journal = {Physical Review E},
keywords = {canonical\_ensemble, equation\_of\_state, first\_order\_phase\_transition, heat\_capacity, microcanonical\_ensemble, thermodynamic\_limit},
month = oct,
number = {4},
pages = {046108},
posted-at = {2010-07-22 13:56:37},
priority = {0},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Failure of thermodynamics near a phase transition},
volume = {66},
year = {2002}
}
@article{Chomaz2001Topology,
abstract = {We propose a definition of first order phase transitions in finite systems based on topology anomalies of the event distribution in the space of observations. This generalizes the definitions based on the curvature anomalies of thermodynamical potentials, provides a natural definition of order parameters, and can be related to the {Yang-Lee} theorem in the thermodynamical limit. It is directly operational from the experimental point of view. It allows to study phase transitions in Gibbs equilibria as well as in other ensembles such as the Tsallis ensemble.},
author = {Chomaz, Ph and Gulminelli, F. and Duflot, V.},
citeulike-article-id = {6147068},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.64.046114},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRE/v64/i4/e046114},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRE/v64/i4/e046114},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.64.046114},
journal = {Physical Review E},
keywords = {bimodality, convex\_intruder, finite\_systems, first\_order\_phase\_transition},
month = sep,
number = {4},
pages = {046114},
posted-at = {2010-07-22 13:52:30},
priority = {0},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Topology of event distributions as a generalized definition of phase transitions in finite systems},
volume = {64},
year = {2001}
}
@article{Chomaz2000Caloric,
abstract = {In this paper we study a microcanonical lattice gas model with a constrained average volume. We show that the caloric curve explicitly depends on the considered transformation of the volume with the excitation energy and so does not bear direct information on the characteristics of the phase transition. Conversely, partial energy fluctuations are demonstrated to be a direct measure of the equation of state. Since the heat capacity has a negative branch in the phase transition region, the presence of abnormally large kinetic energy fluctuations is a signal of the liquid-gas phase transition.},
author = {Chomaz, Ph and Duflot, V. and Gulminelli, F.},
citeulike-article-id = {7530670},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.3587},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v85/i17/p3587},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRL/v85/i17/p3587},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.3587},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
keywords = {caloric\_curve, first\_order\_phase\_transition, fluctuations, microcanonical\_ensemble, negative-heat-capacity},
month = oct,
number = {17},
pages = {3587--3590},
posted-at = {2010-07-22 13:50:31},
priority = {0},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Caloric Curves and Energy Fluctuations in the Microcanonical {Liquid-Gas} Phase Transition},
volume = {85},
year = {2000}
}
@article{Gulminelli1999Critical,
abstract = {The liquid-gas phase transition in finite systems is studied within a lattice gas model in the canonical ensemble. In the coexistence region, the existence of conservation laws is shown to result in anomalies in the associated equation of state leading, for example, to negative compressibility due to surface effects. The associated partitions exhibit scaling behavior inside the coexistence zone. When the thermodynamical limit is taken this scaling disappears while the anomaly of the equation of state becomes the usual nonanalytical behavior. Therefore, in the fragmentation of small systems such as nuclei the experimentally observed critical behavior is demonstrated to be compatible with a first order phase transition because of finite size effects.},
author = {Gulminelli, F. and Chomaz, Ph},
citeulike-article-id = {7530666},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.1402},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v82/i7/p1402},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRL/v82/i7/p1402},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.1402},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
keywords = {canonical\_ensemble, coexistence, criticality, finite\_size\_effects, finite\_systems, first\_order\_phase\_transition, lattice-gas-model, order\_of\_phase\_transition, surface\_effects, thermodynamic\_limit},
month = feb,
number = {7},
pages = {1402--1405},
posted-at = {2010-07-22 13:47:18},
priority = {0},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Critical Behavior in the Coexistence Region of Finite Systems},
volume = {82},
year = {1999}
}
@article{Toke1999New,
abstract = {A novel mechanism of nuclear fragmentation is proposed. Assuming microcanonical equilibrium, it is shown that a strong enhancement of the accessible volume of the phase space due to the diffuseness of nuclear surface leads to dynamical instabilities of hot nuclei and to a fragmentation. Equations are derived for the transition temperature T T for which the thermodynamical surface tension vanishes, as well as for the thermodynamical fissility parameter χ td .},
author = {T\"{o}ke, J. and Schr\"{o}der, W. U.},
citeulike-article-id = {7530553},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.5008},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v82/i25/p5008},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRL/v82/i25/p5008},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.5008},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
keywords = {caloric\_curve, convex\_intruder, finite\_systems, microcanonical\_ensemble, microcanonical\_entropy, specific\_heat},
month = jun,
number = {25},
pages = {5008--5011},
posted-at = {2010-07-22 12:06:49},
priority = {0},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {New Type of Shape Instability of Hot Nuclei and Nuclear Fragmentation},
volume = {82},
year = {1999}
}
@article{Randrup1990Microcanonical,
abstract = {In numerical simulations of many-particle systems, it is often necessary to produce statistical samples of the particle momenta subject to certain microcanonical constraints on the energy and, possibly, the linear, radial, and/or angular momenta. A simple, efficient, and exact sampling method is presented for such tasks, within the confines of classical, non-relativistic mechanics.},
author = {Randrup, J.},
citeulike-article-id = {7427580},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-4655(90)90085-F},
doi = {10.1016/0010-4655(90)90085-F},
journal = {Computer Physics Communications},
keywords = {exact\_sampling, microcanonical\_ensemble, numerical\_simulations},
month = jul,
number = {3},
pages = {439--446},
posted-at = {2010-07-08 10:37:58},
priority = {2},
title = {Microcanonical sampling of momenta in simulations of many-particle systems},
volume = {59},
year = {1990}
}
@article{Lopez1990Theory,
abstract = {Recently, expressions were derived for the rate at which a highly excited nucleus breaks up into several interacting prefragments. The present work treats the dynamical evolution of the system subsequent to such a transition. The post-transition system is described as a number of distinct prefragments that experience both conservative and dissipative pairwise interactions, obtained by a suitable generalization of the dynamics governing damped nuclear reactions. The post-transition dynamics has a significant effect on the disassembly process. Most importantly, some prefragments may fuse in the course of the evolution, thus reducing the heavy-fragment multiplicity. The nuclear dissipation enhances this effect, while the survival probability of a specific mass partition is significantly increased when the source is endowed with an overall radial flow.},
author = {L\'{o}pez, Jorge A. and Randrup, J{\o}rgen},
citeulike-article-id = {7427520},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9474(90)93432-6},
doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(90)93432-6},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
keywords = {decay\_widths, expansion, fragment-production, statistical-decay},
number = {2},
pages = {345--364},
posted-at = {2010-07-08 10:06:40},
priority = {2},
title = {Theory of nuclear {multifragmentation(II}). Post-transition dynamics},
volume = {512},
year = {1990}
}
@article{Gross1990Statistical,
abstract = {Heavy ion collisions are the only tools that enable us to reach compressions of nuclear matter up to a factor of about three. Theories of the collision dynamics that are necessary in order to extract the equation of state for nuclear matter are discussed. The main part of the review is devoted to the statistical decay of equilibrised very hot nuclei. A new mathematical method, microcanonical Metropolis sampling, which allows the explicit calculation of microcanonical observables directly out of the microcanonical partition sum with high statistics, is presented. Thermodynamics of finite nuclei can thus be established from the first principles. This is important as nuclei subjected to long-range Coulomb forces do not allow extrapolation to the thermodynamic limit. This peculiarity has interesting consequences for the phase transitions and the critical behaviour of nuclei. It is also related to the property of nuclei to break into large clusters at high excitation.},
author = {Gross, D. H. E.},
citeulike-article-id = {7427456},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0034-4885/53/5/003},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://iopscience.iop.org/0034-4885/53/5/003},
day = {01},
doi = {10.1088/0034-4885/53/5/003},
journal = {Reports on Progress in Physics},
keywords = {bimodality, caloric\_curve, convex\_intruder, first\_order\_phase\_transition, fragment-production, microcanonical\_ensemble, microcanonical\_entropy, negative-heat-capacity, nuclear-thermodynamics, nuclear\_multifragmentation, specific\_heat, statistical-decay, statistical-ensembles, thermodynamic\_limit},
month = may,
number = {5},
pages = {605},
posted-at = {2010-07-08 09:09:31},
priority = {4},
title = {Statistical decay of very hot nuclei-the production of large clusters},
volume = {53},
year = {1990}
}
@article{Grenier2008Multiparticle,
abstract = {Unstable 10 C nuclei are produced as quasi-projectiles in 12 C 24 Mg collisions at E / A =53 and 95 {MeV}. The decay of their short-lived states is studied with the {INDRA} multidetector array via multi-particle correlation functions. The obtained results show that heavy-ion collisions can be used as a tool to access spectroscopic information of unbound states in exotic nuclei, such as their energies and the relative importance of different sequential decay widths.},
author = {Grenier, F. and Chbihi, A. and Roy, R. and Verde, G. and Theriault, D. and Frankland, J. and Wieleczko, J. and Borderie, B. and Bougault, R. and Dayras, R.},
citeulike-article-id = {7425085},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2008.07.018},
day = {15},
doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2008.07.018},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
keywords = {correlation\_functions, decay\_widths, particle\_correlation},
month = oct,
number = {3-4},
pages = {233--243},
posted-at = {2010-07-07 10:59:21},
priority = {0},
title = {Multi-particle correlation function to study short-lived nuclei},
volume = {811},
year = {2008}
}
@article{Lehaut2010Study,
abstract = {Nuclear stopping has been investigated in central nuclear collisions at intermediate energies by analyzing kinematically complete events recorded with the help of the 4 π multidetector {INDRA} for a large variety of symmetric systems. It is found that the mean isotropy ratio defined as the ratio of transverse to parallel momenta (energies) reaches a minimum near the Fermi energy, saturates or slowly increases depending on the mass of the system as the beam energy increases, and then stays lower than unity, showing that significant stopping is not achieved even for the heavier systems. Close to and above the Fermi energy, experimental data show no effect of the isospin content of the interacting system. A comparison with transport model calculations reveals that the latter overestimates the stopping power at low energies.},
author = {Lehaut, G. and Durand, D. and Lopez, O. and Vient, E. and Chbihi, A. and Frankland, J. D. and Bonnet, E. and Borderie, B. and Bougault, R. and Galichet, E. and Guinet, D. and Ph and Le Neindre, N. and Napolitani, P. and Parlog, M. and Rivet, M. F. and Rosato, E.},
citeulike-article-id = {7353783},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.232701},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v104/i23/e232701},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRL/v104/i23/e232701},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.232701},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
keywords = {central-collisions, equilibration, geometric-scaling, stopping, symmetric\_systems, transparency},
month = jun,
number = {23},
pages = {232701},
posted-at = {2010-07-07 10:45:05},
priority = {0},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Study of Nuclear Stopping in Central Collisions at Intermediate Energies},
volume = {104},
year = {2010}
}
@article{Binder1984Finitesize,
abstract = {Using thermodynamic fluctuation theory, we study the finite-size rounding of anomalies occurring at first-order phase transitions of the corresponding infinite system. Explicit expressions for thermodynamic functions are derived both for "symmetric transitions" (such as the jump of the spontaneous magnetization in the Ising model from Msp to -Msp as the field changes from 0 to 0-) as well as for asymmetric cases, but restricting attention to (hyper)cubic system shapes. As an explicit example for the usefulness of these considerations in Monte Carlo simulations where it may be a problem to (i) locate a phase transition and (ii) distinguish first-order from second-order transitions, we present numerical results for the two-dimensional nearest-neighbor Ising ferromagnet in a field, both below the critical temperature Tc and at Tc. The numerical results are found to be in very good agreement with the phenomenological theory and it is shown that one may extract the magnitudes of jumps occurring at first-order phase transitions in a well-defined and accurate way.},
author = {Binder, K. and Landau, D. P.},
citeulike-article-id = {3716322},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.30.1477},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v30/i3/p1477},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRB/v30/i3/p1477},
day = {1},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.30.1477},
journal = {Physical Review B},
keywords = {bimodality, finite\_size\_scaling, finite\_systems, first\_order\_phase\_transition, order\_of\_phase\_transition, specific\_heat},
month = aug,
number = {3},
pages = {1477--1485},
posted-at = {2010-07-07 10:08:33},
priority = {2},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Finite-size scaling at first-order phase transitions},
volume = {30},
year = {1984}
}
@article{Bonnet2008INFLUENCE,
abstract = {Cross sections, kinetic energy and angular distributions of fragments with charge 6 ≤ Z ≤ 28 emitted in {78,82Kr}{40C} at 5.5 {MeV}/A reactions were measured at the {GANIL} facility using the {INDRA} apparatus. This experiment aims to investigate the influence of the neutron enrichment on the decay mechanism of excited nuclei. Data are discussed in comparison with predictions of transition state and {Hauser-Feshbach} models.},
author = {Bonnet, E. and Wieleczko, J. P. and Del Campo, J. Gomez and La Commara, M. and Barlini, S. and Beck, C. and Borderie, B. and Bougault, R. and Chbihi, A. and Dayras, R. and De Angelis, G. and Frankland, J. D. and Galindo-Uribarri, A. and Glodariou, T. and Kravchuk, V. and Lautesse, Ph and Moisan, J. and Le Neindre, N. and Martin, B. and Nalpas, L. and Onofrio, A. D. and Parlog, M. and Pierroutsakou, D. and Rejmund, F. and Rivet, M. F. and Romoli, M. and Rosato, E. and Roy, R. and Shapira, D. and Spadaccini, G. and Tamain, B. and Vigilante, M.},
citeulike-article-id = {7424833},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0218301308011616},
doi = {10.1142/S0218301308011616},
journal = {International Journal of Modern Physics E},
keywords = {compound-nucleus, fusion, reaction\_mechanisms, statistical-decay},
number = {10},
pages = {2359},
posted-at = {2010-07-07 08:31:58},
priority = {0},
title = {INFLUENCE OF NEUTRON ENRICHMENT ON DISINTEGRATION MODES OF COMPOUND NUCLEI},
volume = {17},
year = {2008}
}
@article{Sfienti2009Isotopic,
abstract = {The A / Z dependence of projectile fragmentation at relativistic energies has been studied with the {ALADIN} forward spectrometer at {SIS}. A stable beam of 124 Sn and radioactive beams of 124 La and 107 Sn at 600 {MeV} per nucleon have been used in order to explore a wide range of isotopic compositions. Chemical freeze-out temperatures are found to be nearly invariant with respect to the A / Z of the produced spectator sources, consistent with predictions for expanded systems. Small Coulomb effects ( Δ T ≈0.6 {MeV} ) appear for residue production near the onset of multifragmentation.},
author = {Sfienti, C. and Adrich, P. and Aumann, T. and Bacri, C. O. and Barczyk, T. and Bassini, R. and Bianchin, S. and Boiano, C. and Botvina, A. S. and Boudard, A. and Brzychczyk, J. and Chbihi, A. and Cibor, J. and Czech, B. and De Napoli, M. and Ducret and Emling, H. and Frankland, J. D. and Hellstr\"{o}m, M. and Henzlova, D. and Imm\`{e}, G. and Iori, I. and Johansson, H. and Kezzar, K. and Lafriakh, A. and Le F\`{e}vre, A. and Le Gentil, E.},
citeulike-article-id = {7423049},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.152701},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v102/i15/e152701},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRL/v102/i15/e152701},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.152701},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
keywords = {caloric\_curve, peripheral-collisions, symmetry-energy},
month = apr,
number = {15},
pages = {152701},
posted-at = {2010-07-06 15:52:19},
priority = {0},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Isotopic Dependence of the Nuclear Caloric Curve},
volume = {102},
year = {2009}
}
@article{Fernandez2009Microcanonical,
abstract = {A microcanonical finite-size ansatz in terms of quantities measurable in a finite lattice allows extending phenomenological renormalization (the so-called quotients method) to the microcanonical ensemble. The ansatz is tested numerically in two models where the canonical specific heat diverges at criticality, thus implying Fisher renormalization of the critical exponents: the three-dimensional ferromagnetic Ising model and the two-dimensional four-state Potts model (where large logarithmic corrections are known to occur in the canonical ensemble). A recently proposed microcanonical cluster method allows simulating systems as large as L =1024 (Potts) or L =128 (Ising). The quotients method provides accurate determinations of the anomalous dimension, η , and of the (Fisher-renormalized) thermal ν exponent. While in the Ising model the numerical agreement with our theoretical expectations is very good, in the Potts case, we need to carefully incorporate logarithmic corrections to the microcanonical ansatz in order to rationalize our data.},
author = {Fernandez, L. A. and Guerrero, A. Gordillo and Mayor, V. Martin and Lorenzo, J. J. Ruiz},
citeulike-article-id = {7369770},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.80.051105},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRE/v80/i5/e051105},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRE/v80/i5/e051105},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.80.051105},
journal = {Physical Review E},
keywords = {continuous\_phase\_transitions, critical\_exponents, criticality, finite\_size\_scaling, finite\_systems, microcanonical\_ensemble, specific\_heat},
month = nov,
number = {5},
pages = {051105},
posted-at = {2010-06-30 15:36:01},
priority = {2},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Microcanonical finite-size scaling in second-order phase transitions with diverging specific heat},
volume = {80},
year = {2009}
}
@article{Behringer2005Finitesize,
abstract = {For models which exhibit a continuous phase transition in the thermodynamic limit a numerical study of small systems reveals a non-monotonic behaviour of the microcanonical specific heat as a function of the system size. This is in contrast to a treatment in the canonical ensemble where the maximum of the specific heat increases monotonically with the size of the system. A phenomenological theory is developed which permits us to describe this peculiar behaviour of the microcanonical specific heat and allows in principle the determination of microcanonical critical exponents.},
author = {Behringer, H. and Pleimling, M. and H\"{u}ller, A.},
citeulike-article-id = {81778},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0305-4470/38/5/001},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iop/jphysa/2005/00000038/00000005/art00001},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://iopscience.iop.org/0305-4470/38/5/001},
day = {04},
doi = {10.1088/0305-4470/38/5/001},
journal = {Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General},
keywords = {continuous\_phase\_transitions, finite\_systems, microcanonical\_ensemble, specific\_heat},
month = feb,
number = {5},
pages = {973},
posted-at = {2010-06-30 15:29:37},
priority = {2},
publisher = {Institute of Physics Publishing},
title = {Finite-size behaviour of the microcanonical specific heat},
volume = {38},
year = {2005}
}
@article{Lee1990New,
abstract = {We present a new numerical method to identify the nature of a phase transition. When combined with finite-size scaling, the method can identify unambiguously a weak first-order transition even when accessible system sizes are L /ξ<0.05 as in the five-state Potts model. At a continuous transition, exponents can be determined surprisingly accurately and the computational effort required is moderate. The method is tested on the {2D} Potts and {3D} Ising models, but should be quite generally applicable.},
author = {Lee, Jooyoung and Kosterlitz, J. M.},
citeulike-article-id = {7369677},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.65.137},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v65/i2/p137},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRL/v65/i2/p137},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.65.137},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
keywords = {bimodality, continuous\_phase\_transitions, order\_of\_phase\_transition, phase-transition},
month = jul,
number = {2},
pages = {137--140},
posted-at = {2010-06-30 14:37:41},
priority = {4},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {New numerical method to study phase transitions},
volume = {65},
year = {1990}
}
@article{Velasco1993Singleparticle,
abstract = {The probability distribution for the energy (velocity) of a particle in the microcanonical ensemble is obtained for some simple systems. Although in the thermodynamic limit the distribution has the well-known Boltzmann ({Maxwell-Boltzmann}) form (characteristic of the canonical ensemble), for finite systems this is not the case. This fact is important in the analysis of the results obtained from pedagogical computer simulations with a very small number of particles and constant total energy (i.e. simulations that generate the microcanonical ensemble).},
author = {Velasco, S. and White, J. A. and Guemez, J.},
citeulike-article-id = {7366891},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0143-0807/14/4/005},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://iopscience.iop.org/0143-0807/14/4/005},
day = {01},
doi = {10.1088/0143-0807/14/4/005},
journal = {European Journal of Physics},
keywords = {energy\_distribution, finite\_systems, maxwell\_boltzmann, microcanonical\_ensemble},
month = jul,
number = {4},
pages = {166},
posted-at = {2010-06-29 16:22:34},
priority = {0},
title = {Single-particle energy and velocity distributions for finite simple systems in the microcanonical ensemble},
volume = {14},
year = {1993}
}
@article{Behringer2006Continuous,
abstract = {The appearance of a convex dip in the microcanonical entropy of finite systems usually signals a first order transition. However, a convex dip also shows up in some systems with a continuous transition as, for example, in the {Baxter-Wu} model and in the four-state Potts model in two dimensions. We demonstrate that the appearance of a convex dip in those cases can be traced back to a finite-size effect. The properties of the dip are markedly different from those associated with a first order transition and can be understood within a microcanonical finite-size scaling theory for continuous phase transitions. Results obtained from numerical simulations corroborate the predictions of the scaling theory.},
author = {Behringer, Hans and Pleimling, Michel},
citeulike-article-id = {7366844},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.74.011108},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRE/v74/i1/e011108},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRE/v74/i1/e011108},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.74.011108},
journal = {Physical Review E},
keywords = {bimodality, continuous\_phase\_transitions, convex\_intruder, finite\_systems, microcanonical\_entropy, negative-heat-capacity, phase-transition},
month = jul,
number = {1},
pages = {011108},
posted-at = {2010-06-29 15:53:58},
priority = {4},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Continuous phase transitions with a convex dip in the microcanonical entropy},
volume = {74},
year = {2006}
}
@article{Thirring1970Systems,
abstract = {Some systems for which the binding energy increases more rapidly than linearly with the number of particles, are shown to exhibit negative specific heatc for some energies. In thermal contact with larger systems,c < 0 creates an instability, and in the canonical ensemble one sees only a phase transition. It is argued that supernovae are, in essence, a phase transition of this origin.},
author = {Thirring, W.},
citeulike-article-id = {7366711},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01403177},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/w61221271352100k},
day = {1},
doi = {10.1007/BF01403177},
journal = {Zeitschrift f\"{u}r Physik A Hadrons and Nuclei},
keywords = {canonical\_ensemble, negative-heat-capacity, phase-transition, thermodynamic\_stability},
month = aug,
number = {4},
pages = {339--352},
posted-at = {2010-06-29 15:19:33},
priority = {4},
title = {Systems with negative specific heat},
volume = {235},
year = {1970}
}
@article{Thirring2003Negative,
abstract = {Thermodynamic stability, in particular, the positivity of the specific heat in the microcanonical ensemble, is not an automatic consequence of the thermodynamic limit. But it holds under special circumstances such as for the most important case of quantum-mechanical Coulomb systems. Therefore, it is surprising that there are experimental indications to the contrary. In this Letter we study a simple model for which the microcanonical specific heat is positive, if the system is ergodic. However, if the system is not ergodic, the energy shell in phase space has some ergodic components with a negative specific heat. This provides another possible general pathway for a negative specific heat in addition to the commonly accepted, the small number of particles.},
author = {Thirring, W. and Narnhofer, H. and Posch, H. A.},
citeulike-article-id = {7366705},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.130601},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v91/i13/e130601},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRL/v91/i13/e130601},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.130601},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
keywords = {ergodicity, negative-heat-capacity, thermodynamic\_limit, thermodynamic\_stability},
month = sep,
number = {13},
pages = {130601},
posted-at = {2010-06-29 15:16:21},
priority = {4},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Negative Specific Heat, the Thermodynamic Limit, and Ergodicity},
volume = {91},
year = {2003}
}
@article{Rozet1996ETACHA,
abstract = {A computer program calculating charge state distributions of ions with up to 28 electrons distributed over n = 1, 2 and 3 subshells has been developed. The model is based on an independent electron model taking into account electron loss, capture and excitation from and to all the subshells. Calculated atomic cross sections are recomputed periodically to take into account their dependence with the projectile energy and its mean charge state when they vary as a function of target thickness.},
author = {Rozet, J. P. and St\'{e}phan, C. and Vernhet, D.},
citeulike-article-id = {6590163},
journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
keywords = {charge\_state\_distribution},
month = feb,
pages = {67},
posted-at = {2010-01-26 10:10:02},
priority = {2},
title = {{ETACHA}: a program for calculating charge states at {GANIL} energies},
volume = {107},
year = {1996}
}
@article{Cassimi1991Charge,
author = {Cassimi, A. and Grandin, J. P. and Suraud, M. G.},
citeulike-article-id = {6590002},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01426343},
doi = {10.1007/BF01426343},
journal = {Zeitschrift f�r Physik D Atoms, Molecules and Clusters},
keywords = {charge\_state\_distribution},
month = mar,
number = {S1},
pages = {S329--S330},
posted-at = {2010-01-26 08:12:11},
priority = {2},
title = {Charge state distributions of 44 {MeV}/{amu129Xe44} and 29 {MeV}/{amu208Pb56} after various solid targets},
volume = {21},
year = {1991}
}
@article{Baron1993Charge,
abstract = {The results of several years of operation with heavy to very heavy ions in {GANIL} accelerators, along with specific measurements concerning stripping through carbon foils, led to a set of valuable recipes for predicting the characteristics required to obtain a desired charge state distribution. The ion species under study range from Ar to U and the energies from 3.8 to 10.6 {MeV}/nucleon. The experimental method and the fits of the results are presented. A series of measurements was also set up to evaluate the beam losses during acceleration in the three cyclotrons; with the help of existing models for charge exchange cross-sections, it is shown that vacuum requirements can be fairly accurately determined.},
author = {Baron, E. and Bajard, M. and Ricaud, C.},
citeulike-article-id = {6589998},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-9002(93)90622-O},
day = {15},
doi = {10.1016/0168-9002(93)90622-O},
journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment},
keywords = {charge\_state\_distribution},
month = apr,
number = {1-2},
pages = {177--182},
posted-at = {2010-01-26 08:05:51},
priority = {2},
title = {Charge exchange of very heavy ions in carbon foils and in the residual gas of {GANIL} cyclotrons},
volume = {328},
year = {1993}
}
@article{Gawlikowicz2010Correlations,
abstract = {Experimental multidimensional joint distributions of neutrons and charged reaction products were analyzed for 136 Xe \^{a}€' \^{a}€' 209 Bi reactions at E / A =28 , 40, and 62 {MeV} and were found to exhibit several different types of prominent correlation patterns. Some of these correlations have a simple explanation in terms of the system excitation energy and pose little challenge to most statistical decay theories. However, several other types of correlation patterns are difficult to reconcile with some, but not other, possible reaction scenarios. In this respect, correlations between the average atomic numbers of intermediate-mass fragments, on the one hand, and light particle multiplicities, on the other, are notable. This kind of multiparticle correlation provides a useful tool for probing reaction scenarios, which is different from the traditional approach of interpreting inclusive yields of individual reaction products.},
author = {Gawlikowicz, W. and Agnihotri, D. K. and Baldwin, S. A. and Schr\"{o}der, W. U. and Oke, J. T. and Charity, R. J. and Sarantites, D. G. and Sobotka, L. G. and deSouza, R. T. and Barczyk, T. and Grotowski, K. and Micek, S. and Pl{}aneta, R. and Sosin, Z.},
citeulike-article-id = {6572240},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.81.014604},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v81/i1/e014604},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v81/i1/e014604},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.81.014604},
journal = {Physical Review C},
keywords = {neutrons, reaction\_mechanisms},
month = jan,
number = {1},
pages = {014604},
posted-at = {2010-01-21 13:11:25},
priority = {4},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Correlations between reaction product yields as a tool for probing heavy-ion reaction scenarios},
volume = {81},
year = {2010}
}
@article{Scheid1974Nuclear,
abstract = {It is shown that nuclear matter is compressed during the encounter of heavy ions. If the relative velocity of the nuclei is larger than the velocity of first sound in nuclear matter (compression sound for isospin T =0 ), nuclear shock waves occur. They lead to densities which are 3-5 times higher than the nuclear equilibrium density \"{I}� 0 , depending on the energy of the nuclei. The implications of this phenomenon are discussed.},
author = {Scheid, Werner and M\"{u}ller, Hans and Greiner, Walter},
citeulike-article-id = {6565150},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.32.741},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v32/i13/p741},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRL/v32/i13/p741},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.32.741},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
keywords = {central-collisions, expansion, flow, stopping},
month = apr,
number = {13},
pages = {741--745},
posted-at = {2010-01-20 09:31:31},
priority = {2},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Nuclear Shock Waves in {Heavy-Ion} Collisions},
volume = {32},
year = {1974}
}
@article{Marie1997Hot,
abstract = {The {INDRA} multidetector has been used to study multifragmentation processes in central collisions for the Xe Sn reaction at 50 A {MeV}. A single isotropic source formed at an excitation energy of 12 A {MeV} exhausting most of the emitted charged products has been isolated in such collisions. The fragment kinetic energy spectra indicate a fast disintegration of the system with a radial collective motion of about 2 A {MeV}. The light charged particle characteristics within this scenario are also discussed.},
author = {Marie, N.},
citeulike-article-id = {6563172},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0370-2693(96)01446-3},
day = {09},
doi = {10.1016/S0370-2693(96)01446-3},
journal = {Physics Letters B},
keywords = {central-collisions, expansion, flow, isotropic\_source, nuclear\_multifragmentation},
month = jan,
number = {1-2},
pages = {15--21},
posted-at = {2010-01-19 15:41:39},
priority = {0},
title = {A hot expanding source in 50 A {MeV} Xe Sn central reactions},
volume = {391},
year = {1997}
}
@article{Borderie2002Dynamics,
abstract = {Searching for signatures of a liquid-gas transition has motivated great efforts in the study of heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies in the last few years. This review describes the main contributions obtained so far for such a search using data from the {INDRA} array.},
author = {Borderie, B.},
citeulike-article-id = {6563012},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/28/8/201},
doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/28/8/201},
journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics},
keywords = {indra, nuclear-thermodynamics, nuclear\_multifragmentation, phase-transition},
number = {8},
pages = {R217--R247},
posted-at = {2010-01-19 14:48:44},
priority = {0},
title = {Dynamics and thermodynamics of the liquid\–gas phase transition in hot nuclei studied with the {INDRA} array},
volume = {28},
year = {2002}
}
@article{Ukasik2004INDRAGSI,
abstract = {Directed flow in symmetric heavy ion collisions has been studied using the 197 Au 197 Au reactions at incident energies between 40 and 150 A {MeV}. The reactions have been measured with the 4π multi-detector {INDRA} at the {GSI} facility. In particular, the bombarding energy at which the elliptic flow switches from in-plane to out-of-plane enhancement has been determined to be clearly above 100 A {MeV} in good agreement with the result obtained by the {FOPI} Collaboration. The new data also allows to extend the experimental excitation function of v 2 to lower energies.},
author = {Ukasik, J.},
citeulike-article-id = {6562854},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ppnp.2004.02.013},
doi = {10.1016/j.ppnp.2004.02.013},
journal = {Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics},
keywords = {auau, elliptic\_flow, indra},
month = jul,
number = {1},
pages = {77--80},
posted-at = {2010-01-19 14:01:45},
priority = {2},
title = {{INDRA}@{GSI}: collective flow in {AuAu} collisions},
volume = {53},
year = {2004}
}
@article{Morawetz2000Dynamical,
abstract = {The numerical solutions of nonlocal and local Boltzmann kinetic equations for the simulation of central heavy ion reactions are parametrized in terms of time-dependent thermodynamical variables in the Fermi liquid sense. This allows one to discuss dynamical trajectories in phase space. The nonequilibrium state is characterized by nonisobaric, nonisochoric, etc., conditions, shortly called isonothing conditions. Therefore a combination of thermodynamical observables is constructed which allows one to locate instabilities and points of possible phase transition in a dynamical sense. We find two different mechanisms of instability, a short time surface-dominated instability and later a spinodal-dominated volume instability. The latter one occurs only if the incident energies do not exceed significantly the Fermi energy and might be attributed to spinodal decomposition. In contrast the fast surface explosion occurs far outside the spinodal region and pertains also in the cases where the system develops too fast to suffer a spinodal decomposition and where the system approaches equilibrium outside the spinodal region.},
author = {Morawetz, Klaus},
citeulike-article-id = {6561420},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.62.044606},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v62/i4/e044606},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v62/i4/e044606},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.62.044606},
journal = {Physical Review C},
keywords = {central-collisions, equilibration, expansion, phase-diagram, spinodal-decomposition, statistical-ensembles},
month = sep,
number = {4},
pages = {044606},
posted-at = {2010-01-19 09:33:06},
priority = {0},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Dynamical constraints on phase transitions},
volume = {62},
year = {2000}
}
@article{Borderie2008Nuclear,
abstract = {This review article is focused on the tremendous progress realized during the last fifteen years in the understanding of multifragmentation and its relationship to the liquid–gas phase diagram of nuclei and nuclear matter. The explosion of the whole nucleus, early predicted by Bohr [N. Bohr, Nature 137 (1936) 351], is a very complex and rich subject which continues to fascinate nuclear physicists as well as theoreticians who extend the thermodynamics of phase transitions to finite systems.},
author = {Borderie, B. and Rivet, M.},
citeulike-article-id = {6561416},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ppnp.2008.01.003},
doi = {10.1016/j.ppnp.2008.01.003},
journal = {Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics},
keywords = {nuclear\_multifragmentation, phase-diagram, phase-transition},
month = oct,
number = {2},
pages = {551--601},
posted-at = {2010-01-19 09:24:44},
priority = {0},
title = {Nuclear multifragmentation and phase transition for hot nuclei},
volume = {61},
year = {2008}
}
@article{Bellaize2002Multifragmentation,
abstract = {The influence of the entrance channel mass asymmetry upon the fragmentation process is addressed by studying heavy-ion induced reactions around the Fermi energy. The data have been recorded with the {INDRA} 4π array. An event selection method called the Principal Component Analysis is presented and discussed. It is applied for the selection of central events and furthermore to multifragmentation of single source events. The selected subsets of data are compared to the Statistical Multifragmentation Model ({SMM}) to check the equilibrium hypothesis and get the source characteristics. Experimental comparisons show the evidence of a decoupling between thermal and compressional (radial flow) component of the excitation energy stored in such nuclear systems.},
author = {Bellaize, N.},
citeulike-article-id = {6561193},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0375-9474(02)00988-0},
day = {21},
doi = {10.1016/S0375-9474(02)00988-0},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
keywords = {central-collisions, event-selection, flow, fragment-production, indra, smm},
month = oct,
number = {1-4},
pages = {367--391},
posted-at = {2010-01-19 09:01:37},
priority = {0},
title = {Multifragmentation process for different mass asymmetry in the entrance channel around the Fermi energy},
volume = {709},
year = {2002}
}
@article{Rami2000Isospin,
abstract = {Four different combinations of 44 96 Ru and 40 96 Zr nuclei, both as projectile and target, were investigated at the same bombarding energy of 400 A {MeV} using a 4 \"{I}€ detector. The degree of isospin mixing between projectile and target nucleons is mapped across a large portion of the phase space using two different isospin-tracer observables, the number of measured protons and the tritium to 3 He yield ratio. The experimental results show that the global equilibrium is not reached even in the most central collisions. Quantitative measures of stopping and mixing are extracted from the data. They are found to exhibit a quite strong sensitivity to the in-medium ( n , n ) cross section used in microscopic transport calculations.},
author = {Rami, F. and Leifels, Y. and de Schauenburg, B. and Gobbi, A. and Hong, B. and Alard, J. P. and Andronic, A. and Averbeck, R. and Barret, V. and Basrak, Z. and Bastid, N. and Belyaev, I. and Bendarag, A. and Berek, G. and \v{C}aplar, R. and Cindro, N. and Crochet, P. and Devismes, A. and Dupieux, P. and D\v{z}elalija, M. and Eskef, M. and Finck, C. and Fodor, Z. and Folger, H. and Fraysse, L. and Lubain, A. Genoux and Grigorian, Y.},
citeulike-article-id = {6540395},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.1120},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v84/i6/p1120},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRL/v84/i6/p1120},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.1120},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
keywords = {central-collisions, isospin-mixing, isospin-tracer, stopping, transparency, triton-to-he3-ratio},
month = feb,
number = {6},
pages = {1120--1123},
posted-at = {2010-01-14 14:17:11},
priority = {0},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Isospin Tracing: A Probe of Nonequilibrium in Central {Heavy-Ion} Collisions},
volume = {84},
year = {2000}
}
@article{Kox1984Direct,
abstract = {Measurements of σ R have been performed at 30 and 83 {MeV}/nucleon incident energy for 15 heavy-ion systems using the attenuation method. The data are compared with predictions of microscopic calculations and a semi-empirical formula is given for σ R .},
author = {Kox, S.},
citeulike-article-id = {6540267},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9474(84)90663-8},
day = {21},
doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(84)90663-8},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
keywords = {reaction\_cross\_sections},
month = may,
number = {1},
pages = {162--172},
posted-at = {2010-01-14 13:43:54},
priority = {3},
title = {Direct measurements of heavy-ion total reaction cross sections at 30 and 83 {MeV}/nucleon},
volume = {420},
year = {1984}
}
@article{Collaboration2006Evolution,
abstract = {Abstract.\ \ Ar Ni and Ni Ni collisions are investigated between 32 and around {100A} {MeV} incident energy with the 4π multidetector {INDRA}. Fusion cross-sections are found to decrease from ∼ 180mb at {32A} {MeV} to zero above {50A} {MeV}. Other experimental results, for light systems, are compared. Moreover, theoretical works are discussed and fusion cross-sections, calculated from two dynamical simulations based on nuclear Boltzmann equation ({Boltzmann-Nordheim}-Vlasov and {Landau-Vlasov} models), are also compared to experimental results.},
author = {Collaboration, Indra and Lautesse, P. and Nalpas, L. and Dayras, R. and Rivet, M. and P\^{a}rlog, M. and Bisquer, E. and Borderie, B. and Bougault, R. and Buchet, P. and Charvet, J. and Chbihi, A. and Colonna, M. and Demeyer, A. and D\'{e}sesquelles, P. and Frankland, J. and Galichet, E. and Gerlic, E. and Guinet, D. and Legrain, R. and Le Neindre, N. and Lopez, O. and Manduci, L. and Maskay, A. and Nogu\`{e}re, G. and Rosato, E. and Roy, R. and Schmitt, C. and Stern, M. and Tamain, B. and Vient, E. and Vigilante, M. and Volant, C. and Wieleczko, J.},
citeulike-article-id = {6540253},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epja/i2005-10272-2},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/e2728535512r8k22},
day = {9},
doi = {10.1140/epja/i2005-10272-2},
journal = {The European Physical Journal A - Hadrons and Nuclei},
keywords = {central-collisions, event-selection, fusion, fusion-x-section, stopping},
month = mar,
number = {3},
pages = {349--357},
posted-at = {2010-01-14 13:27:53},
priority = {0},
title = {Evolution of the fusion cross-section for light systems at intermediate energies},
volume = {27},
year = {2006}
}
@article{Viola2006Calorimetry,
abstract = {{Abstract.\ \ Methods} for determining the heat content E */A of hot nuclei formed in energetic nuclear reactions are discussed. The primary factors involved in converting raw data into thermal physics distributions include: 1) design of the detector array, 2) constraints imposed by the physics of the reaction mechanism, and 3) assumptions involved in converting the filtered data into E */A. The two primary sources of uncertainty in the calorimetry are the elimination of nonequilibrium emissions from the event components and accounting for the contribution of neutron emission to the excitation energy sum.},
author = {Viola, V. and Bougault, R.},
citeulike-article-id = {6495445},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epja/i2006-10118-5},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/n01356k844201365},
day = {1},
doi = {10.1140/epja/i2006-10118-5},
journal = {The European Physical Journal A - Hadrons and Nuclei},
keywords = {calorimetry},
month = oct,
number = {1},
pages = {215--226},
posted-at = {2010-01-06 13:42:01},
priority = {2},
title = {Calorimetry},
volume = {30},
year = {2006}
}
@article{Leneindre2007Yield,
abstract = {Multifragmentation properties measured with {INDRA} are studied for single sources produced in Xe Sn reactions in the incident energy range 32–50 A {MeV} and quasi-projectiles from Au Au collisions at 80 A {MeV}. A comparison for both types of sources is presented concerning Fisher scaling, Zipf law, fragment size and fluctuation observables. A Fisher scaling is observed for all the data. The pseudo-critical energies extracted from the Fisher scaling are consistent between Xe Sn central collisions and Au quasi-projectiles. In the latter case it also corresponds to the energy region at which fluctuations are maximal. The critical energies deduced from the Zipf analysis are higher than those from the Fisher analysis.},
author = {Le Neindre, N. and Bonnet, E. and Wieleczko, J. and Borderie, B. and Gulminelli, F. and Rivet, M. and Bougault, R. and Chbihi, A. and Dayras, R. and Frankland, J.},
citeulike-article-id = {6495331},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2007.08.011},
day = {01},
doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2007.08.011},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
keywords = {biggest-fragment, central-collisions, fisher-scaling, fluctuations, nuclear-thermodynamics, peripheral-collisions, phase-diagram, phase-transition, zipf-law},
month = nov,
number = {1-4},
pages = {47--69},
posted-at = {2010-01-06 13:26:56},
priority = {0},
title = {Yield scaling, size hierarchy and fluctuations of observables in fragmentation of excited heavy nuclei},
volume = {795},
year = {2007}
}
@article{Bonnet2009Bimodal,
abstract = {The charge distribution of the heaviest fragment detected in the decay of quasiprojectiles produced in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions has been observed to be bimodal. This feature is expected as a generic signal of phase transition in nonextensive systems. In this Letter, we present new analyses of experimental data from Au on Au collisions at 60, 80, and 100 {MeV}/nucleon showing that bimodality is largely independent of the data selection procedure and of entrance channel effects. An estimate of the latent heat of the transition is extracted.},
author = {Bonnet, E. and Mercier, D. and Borderie, B. and Gulminelli, F. and Rivet, M. and Tamain, B. and Bougault, R. and Chbihi, A. and Dayras, R. and Frankland, J. and Galichet, E. and Gagnon-Moisan, F. and Guinet, D. and Lautesse, P. and {\L}ukasik, J. and Le Neindre, N. and P\^{a}rlog, M. and Rosato, E. and Roy, R. and Vigilante, M. and Wieleczko, J. and Zwieglinski, B.},
citeulike-article-id = {5692288},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal\&id=PRLTAO000103000007072701000001\&idtype=cvips\&gifs=yes},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v103/e072701},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.072701},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.072701},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
keywords = {biggest-fragment, bimodality, fragment-production, phase-transition},
month = aug,
number = {7},
pages = {072701},
posted-at = {2010-01-05 09:07:38},
priority = {0},
publisher = {APS},
title = {Bimodal Behavior of the Heaviest Fragment Distribution in Projectile Fragmentation},
volume = {103},
year = {2009}
}
@article{Hudan2009Charge,
abstract = {Ternary breakup of an excited projectile-like fragment produced in mid-peripheral collisions of 124 Xe projectiles with 112 Sn nuclei at E / A =50 {MeV} is examined. Charge correlations reveal that symmetric breakups occur with significant probability. By selecting on the parallel velocity of the heaviest fragment we minimize the entrance channel dynamics. Calculations with the statistical decay code {GEMINI} failed to reproduce the experimental charge correlations for any suitable combination of excitation energy and spin considered. A statistical multifragmentation model ({SMM}) in which breakup of low-density nuclear matter is assumed was able to reproduce the observed charge correlations. The \^{a}{\OE}{\copyright} N \^{a}{\OE}ª/ Z and isotope distributions of fragments were compared to the results of the {SMM} calculations. Describing the \^{a}{\OE}{\copyright} N \^{a}{\OE}ª/ Z of heavy fragments ( Z >6 ) within {SMM} suggests that a reduction of the symmetry energy parameter from \^{I}³ =25 to 14 {MeV} is necessary. We observe that the yield of neutron-rich isotopes of heavy fragments is particularly sensitive to the symmetry energy.},
author = {Hudan, S. and McIntosh, A. B. and Black, J. and Mercier, D. and Metelko, C. J. and Yanez, R. and de Souza, R. T. and Chbihi, A. and Famiano, M. and Fr\'{e}geau, M. O. and Gauthier, J. and Moisan, J. and Roy, R. and Bianchin, S. and Schwarz, C. and Trautmann, W. and Botvina, A. S.},
citeulike-article-id = {6481639},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal\&id=PRVCAN000080000006064611000001\&idtype=cvips\&gifs=yes},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v80/e064611},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.80.064611},
citeulike-linkout-3 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v80/i6/e064611},
citeulike-linkout-4 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v80/i6/e064611},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.80.064611},
journal = {Physical Review C},
keywords = {fragment-charge-correlations, fragment-production, peripheral-collisions, smm, symmetry-energy},
month = dec,
number = {6},
pages = {064611},
posted-at = {2010-01-04 11:30:01},
priority = {3},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Charge correlations and isotopic distributions of projectile fragmentation events in \${Xe124Sn112}\$ at \${E/A}=50\$ {MeV}},
volume = {80},
year = {2009}
}
@article{Brun1997ROOT,
abstract = {The {ROOT} system in an Object Oriented framework for large scale data analysis. {ROOT} written in C, contains, among others, an efficient hierarchical {OO} database, a C interpreter, advanced statistical analysis (multi-dimensional histogramming, fitting, minimization, cluster finding algorithms) and visualization tools. The user interacts with {ROOT} via a graphical user interface, the command line or batch scripts. The command and scripting language is C (using the interpreter) and large scripts can be compiled and dynamically linked in. The {OO} database design has been optimized for parallel access (reading as well as writing) by multiple processes.},
author = {Brun, R.},
booktitle = {New Computing Techniques in Physics Research V},
citeulike-article-id = {847979},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9002(97)00048-X},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TJM-3SPKX96-1F/2/3aa2b2cb72c9a4316a842802541bf317},
day = {11},
doi = {10.1016/S0168-9002(97)00048-X},
journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment},
keywords = {analysis\_framework, root\_system},
month = apr,
number = {1-2},
pages = {81--86},
posted-at = {2009-12-14 13:10:37},
priority = {3},
title = {{ROOT} — An object oriented data analysis framework},
volume = {389},
year = {1997}
}
@article{Souza2009Temperature,
abstract = {The properties of the nuclear isoscaling at finite temperature are investigated and the extent to which its parameter α holds information on the symmetry energy is examined. We show that, although finite temperature effects invalidate the analytical formulas that relate the isoscaling parameter α to those of the mass formula, the symmetry energy remains the main ingredient that dictates the behavior of α at finite temperatures, even for very different sources. This conclusion is not obvious as it is not true in the vanishing temperature limit, where analytical formulas are available. Our results also reveal that different statistical ensembles lead to essentially the same conclusions based on the isoscaling analysis, for the temperatures usually assumed in theoretical calculations in the nuclear multifragmentation process.},
author = {Souza, S. R. and Tsang, M. B. and Carlson, B. V. and Donangelo, R. and Lynch, W. G. and Steiner, A. W.},
citeulike-article-id = {6114629},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal\&id=PRVCAN000080000004044606000001\&idtype=cvips\&gifs=yes},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v80/e044606},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.80.044606},
citeulike-linkout-3 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v80/i4/e044606},
citeulike-linkout-4 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v80/i4/e044606},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.80.044606},
journal = {Physical Review C},
keywords = {isoscaling, symmetry-energy},
month = oct,
number = {4},
pages = {044606},
posted-at = {2009-11-16 05:08:02},
priority = {2},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Temperature effects in nuclear isoscaling},
volume = {80},
year = {2009}
}
@article{Gorenstein2008Statistical,
abstract = {We suggest an extension of the standard concept of statistical ensembles. Namely, we introduce a class of ensembles with extensive quantities fluctuating according to an externally given distribution. As an example, the influence of energy fluctuations on multiplicity fluctuations in limited segments of momentum space for a classical ultra-relativistic gas is considered. The system volume fluctuations are also discussed.},
author = {Gorenstein, M. I. and Hauer, M.},
citeulike-article-id = {6114552},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal\&id=PRVCAN000078000004041902000001\&idtype=cvips\&gifs=yes},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v78/e041902},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.78.041902},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.78.041902},
journal = {Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics)},
keywords = {fluctuations, statistical-ensembles, thermodynamics},
number = {4},
pages = {041902},
posted-at = {2009-11-16 03:56:23},
priority = {4},
publisher = {APS},
title = {Statistical ensembles with fluctuating extensive quantities},
volume = {78},
year = {2008}
}
@article{LeFevre2009Bimodality,
abstract = {Recently, it has been observed that events with the same total transverse energy of light charged particles ({LCP}) in the quasitarget region, E[perpendicular] {12QT}" align="middle"/>, show two quite distinct reaction scenarios in the projectile domain: multifragmentation and residue production. This phenomenon has been dubbed \“bimodality.\” Using quantum molecular dynamics calculations we demonstrate that this observation is very general. It appears in collisions of all symmetric systems larger than Ca and at beam energies between {50A}\&{nbsp;MeV} and {600A}\&{nbsp;MeV} and is due to large fluctuations of the impact parameter for a given E[perpendicular] {12QT}" align="middle"/>. Investigating in detail the E[perpendicular] {12QT}" align="middle"/> bin in which both scenarios are present, we find that neither the average fragment momenta nor the average transverse and longitudinal energies of fragments show the behavior expected from a system in statistical equilibrium, in experiment as well as in {QMD} simulations. On the contrary, the experimental as well as the theoretical results point toward a fast process. This observation questions the conjecture that the observed bimodality is due to the coexistence of two phases at a given temperature in finite systems.},
author = {Le F\`{e}vre, A. and Aichelin, J. and Hartnack, C. and {L}ukasik, J. and M\"{u}ller, W. F. J. and Orth, H. and Schwarz, C. and Sfienti, C. and Trautmann, W. and Turz\'{o}, K. and Zwiegli\'{n}ski, B. and Chbihi, A. and Frankland, J. D. and Wieleczko, J. P. and Aladin, M. Vigilante and Collaboration, Indra@gsi},
citeulike-article-id = {6114535},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal\&id=PRVCAN000080000004044615000001\&idtype=cvips\&gifs=yes},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v80/e044615},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.80.044615},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.80.044615},
journal = {Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics)},
keywords = {biggest-fragment, bimodality, event-selection, peripheral-collisions, quantum-molecular-dynamics},
number = {4},
pages = {044615},
posted-at = {2009-11-16 03:39:14},
priority = {0},
publisher = {APS},
title = {Bimodality: A general feature of heavy ion reactions},
volume = {80},
year = {2009}
}
@article{Dammak2009Quantum,
abstract = {Molecular dynamics ({MD}) is a numerical simulation technique based on classical mechanics. It has been taken for granted that its use is limited to a large temperature regime where classical statistics is valid. To overcome this limitation, the authors introduce in a universal way a quantum thermal bath that accounts for quantum statistics while using standard {MD}. The efficiency of the new technique is illustrated by reproducing several experimental data at low temperatures in a regime where quantum statistical effects cannot be neglected.},
author = {Dammak, Hichem and Chalopin, Yann and Laroche, Marine and Hayoun, Marc and Greffet, Jean J.},
citeulike-article-id = {6083342},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal\&id=PRLTAO000103000019190601000001\&idtype=cvips\&gifs=yes},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v103/e190601},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.190601},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.190601},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
keywords = {quantum-molecular-dynamics, thermodynamics},
number = {19},
pages = {190601},
posted-at = {2009-11-09 10:05:05},
priority = {2},
publisher = {APS},
title = {Quantum Thermal Bath for Molecular Dynamics Simulation},
volume = {103},
year = {2009}
}
@article{Bhattacharjee2009Evidence,
abstract = {Projectile fragmentation mechanism and the possible liquid gas phase transition have been studied by extracting the critical exponents using cluster approximation technique. A 'toy model', schematically accounting for pre-equilibrium, has been developed and various moments as well as conditional moments have been evaluated with the data obtained from the toy model to see the effect of mass conservation constraint. An exponent δ , related to third order moment, has been evaluated to obtain a set of values of γ , β and τ that follow the corresponding scaling relation. The values of γ , β and τ so obtained are found to be 1.34±0.19 , 0.54±0.15 and 2.31±0.06 respectively.},
author = {Bhattacharjee, B. and Debnath, B.},
citeulike-article-id = {5671598},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.07.015},
day = {22},
doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.07.015},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
keywords = {fragment-production, nuclear-thermodynamics, peripheral-collisions, phase-transition},
month = aug,
posted-at = {2009-09-23 12:24:30},
priority = {4},
title = {Evidence of phase transition in the break up of Kr-projectile nuclei at {0.95A} {GeV}},
year = {2009}
}
@article{Brustein2009Einstein,
abstract = {We show that the equations of motion of generalized theories of gravity are equivalent to the thermodynamic relation {deltaQ}={TdeltaS}. Our proof relies on extending previous arguments by using a more general definition of the Noether charge entropy. We have thus completed the implementation of Jacobson's proposal to express Einstein's equations as a thermodynamic equation of state. Additionally, we find that the Noether charge entropy obeys the second law of thermodynamics if the energy-momentum tensor obeys the null energy condition. Our results support the idea that gravitation on a macroscopic scale is a manifestation of the thermodynamics of the vacuum.},
author = {Brustein, Ram and Hadad, Merav},
citeulike-article-id = {5730715},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal\&id=PRLTAO000103000010101301000001\&idtype=cvips\&gifs=yes},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v103/e101301},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.101301},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.101301},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
keywords = {general-relativity, thermodynamics},
number = {10},
pages = {101301},
posted-at = {2009-09-07 10:05:56},
priority = {4},
publisher = {APS},
title = {Einstein Equations for Generalized Theories of Gravity and the Thermodynamic Relation delta Q = T delta S are Equivalent},
volume = {103},
year = {2009}
}
@article{Sisan2001Intermediate,
abstract = {Emission of intermediate mass fragments ({IMFs}) ( Z > \~{}3) from central collisions of 40 Ar 45 Sc ( E / A =35–115 {MeV}); 58 Ni 58 Ni ( E / A =35–105 {MeV}); and 86 Kr 93 Nb ( E / A =35–95 {MeV}) was studied. For each system; the average number of {IMFs} per event increased with beam energy; reached a maximum; and then decreased. The beam energy of peak {IMF} production increased linearly with the combined mass of the system. The number of {IMFs} emitted at the peak also increased with the system mass. Percolation calculations showed a weaker dependence of the peak beam energy and the number of {IMFs} on the total mass of the system.},
author = {Sisan, D. and Bauer, W. and Bjarki, O. and Magestro, D. J. and Nadasen, A. and Pak, R. and Rao, K. A. G. and Stone, N. T. B. and Molen, A. M. Vander and Westfall, G. D. and Yuhasz, W.},
citeulike-article-id = {5718047},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.63.027602},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v63/i2/e027602},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v63/i2/e027602},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.63.027602},
journal = {Physical Review C},
keywords = {central-collisions, fragment-production, percolation, system-mass-scaling},
month = jan,
number = {2},
pages = {027602},
posted-at = {2009-09-03 14:21:10},
priority = {4},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Intermediate mass fragment emission in heavy-ion collisions: Energy and system mass dependence},
volume = {63},
year = {2001}
}
@article{Vermani2009Mass,
abstract = {Based on the quantum molecular dynamics ({QMD}) picture, we calculate the energy and mass dependence of fragment production. For the present study, we simulated the reactions of {20Ne} {20Ne}, {40Ar} {45Sc}, {58Ni} {58Ni}, {86Kr} {93Nb},{129Xe} {124Sn} and {197Au} {197Au} at central geometry. Our findings clearly show a linear mass dependence for the peak center-of-mass energy at which the maximal {IMF} production occurs. Such a linear dependence for peak center-of-mass energy on the system size has also been observed in recent experimental studies. We also predict a similar behavior for the multiplicities of different kinds of fragments. Experiments are called for to verify this prediction.},
author = {Vermani, Yogesh K. and Puri, Rajeev K.},
citeulike-article-id = {5697113},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/36/10/105103},
doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/36/10/105103},
journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics},
keywords = {central-collisions, fragment-production, quantum-molecular-dynamics, system-mass-scaling},
number = {10},
pages = {105103},
posted-at = {2009-09-01 12:39:38},
priority = {3},
title = {Mass dependence of the onset of multifragmentation in low energy heavy-ion collisions},
volume = {36},
year = {2009}
}
@article{Lopez1989Theory,
abstract = {The transition-state treatment of ordinatry binary fission is generalized to describe statistical disassembly of a highly excited nucleus into multifragment channels. In this first part of the work, the focus is on deriving the general expressions for the transition widths into an assembly of specified prefragments. These are still interacting and may experience a significant post-transition evolution which will be addressed in part ({II}) of this work. The transition configurations are described in terms of a number of interacting prefragments, whose positions are constrained by a generalized disassembly degree of freedom characterizing the overall spatial extension of the system and whose phase space is included in the statistical weight. Angular-momentum conservation is readily incorporated in the formulation. The treatment is discussed in relation to standard fission theory and statistical multifragmentation models.},
author = {L\'{o}pez, J.},
citeulike-article-id = {5300950},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9474(89)90261-3},
day = {16},
doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(89)90261-3},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
keywords = {compound-nucleus, fragment-production, freeze-out-volume, nuclear-thermodynamics, statistical-decay},
month = oct,
number = {1},
pages = {183--222},
posted-at = {2009-07-30 09:44:58},
priority = {0},
title = {Theory of nuclear multifragmentation (I). Transition-state treatment of the breakup process},
volume = {503},
year = {1989}
}
@article{Phair1992Impactparameter,
abstract = {Collisions between 36 Ar projectiles and 197 Au target nuclei at E / A = 50, 80 and 110 {MeV} have been studied with the {MSU} Miniball, a 4π phoswich array with a low detection threshold. Various impact-parameter filters, based upon total charged-particle multiplicity, transverse energy, midrapidity charge and multiplicity of emitted hydrogen nuclei, are compared and cross-correlated. The relative selectivity of each prescription for small impact-parameter collisions is evaluated by assessing the suppression of fast-particle emission at forward angles.},
author = {Phair, L.},
citeulike-article-id = {5042832},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9474(92)90697-I},
day = {19},
doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(92)90697-I},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
keywords = {central-collisions, event-selection, impact-parameter-filter},
month = oct,
number = {3},
pages = {489--509},
posted-at = {2009-07-02 15:25:16},
priority = {0},
title = {Impact-parameter filters for {36Ar}{197Au} collisions at {E/A} = 50, 80 and 110 {MeV}},
volume = {548},
year = {1992}
}
@article{Phair1993Azimuthal,
abstract = {Azimuthal correlations of particles emitted in collisions between 197 Au target nuclei and projectiles 36 Ar (at {E/A} = 35, 50, 80 and 110 {MeV}) and 129 Xe (at {E/A} = 50 {MeV}) have been measured with the {MSU} Miniball, a 4π phoswich array with a low detection threshold. Various impact parameter filters, based on the charge-particle multiplicity, transverse energy and midrapidity charge are tested by their ability to suppress collective motion as measured by the azimuthal correlations. The usefulness of a directivity cut in selecting central collisions for these systems is evaluated.},
author = {Phair, L.},
citeulike-article-id = {5042749},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9474(93)90515-Y},
day = {22},
doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(93)90515-Y},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
keywords = {azimuthal-correlations, central-collisions, event-selection, impact-parameter-filter},
month = nov,
number = {3},
pages = {453--472},
posted-at = {2009-07-02 15:23:09},
priority = {0},
title = {Azimuthal correlations as a test for centrality in heavy-ion collisions},
volume = {564},
year = {1993}
}
@article{Ericson1960Fluctuations,
author = {Ericson, Torleif},
citeulike-article-id = {5032301},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.5.430},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v5/i9/p430},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRL/v5/i9/p430},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.5.430},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
keywords = {compound-nucleus, fusion, statistical-decay},
month = nov,
number = {9},
pages = {430--431},
posted-at = {2009-07-01 13:55:31},
priority = {5},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Fluctuations of Nuclear Cross Sections in the "Continuum" Region},
volume = {5},
year = {1960}
}
@article{Toke2009Common,
abstract = {Characteristic signatures of statistical Coulomb fragmentation of highly excited nuclear systems are analyzed. It is found that in many important aspects, they coincide with perceived signatures of phase transitions in confined hypothetical pseudomicrocanonical systems and, therefore, may give rise to an incorrect interpretation of certain experimental observations in terms of phase transitions occurring in nuclear matter. It is demonstrated that domains of negative heat capacity predicted by certain classes of pseudomicrocanonical model calculations for the immediate vicinity of phase transitions are artifacts of an unphysical truncation of the model phase space and that such domains disappear already with a very rudimentary enhancement of this phase space. Appearance of bimodality and of signatures of critical phenomena in Coulomb fragmentation is discussed.},
author = {Toke, J. and Schr\"{o}der, W. U.},
citeulike-article-id = {5032008},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal\&id=PRVCAN000079000006064622000001\&idtype=cvips\&gifs=yes},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v79/e064622},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.79.064622},
citeulike-linkout-3 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v79/i6/e064622},
citeulike-linkout-4 = {http://link.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v79/i6/e064622},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.79.064622},
journal = {Physical Review C},
keywords = {bimodality, fragment-production, negative-heat-capacity, phase-diagram, phase-transition, statistical-decay},
month = jun,
number = {6},
pages = {064622},
posted-at = {2009-07-01 12:50:13},
priority = {2},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {Common signatures of statistical Coulomb fragmentation of highly excited nuclei and phase transitions in confined microcanonical systems},
volume = {79},
year = {2009}
}
@article{Vermani2009Momentum,
abstract = {We report the consequences of implementing momentum dependent interactions ({MDI}) on multifragmentation in heavy-ion reactions over entire collision geometry. The evolution of a single cold nucleus using static soft and soft momentum dependent equations of state demonstrates that inclusion of momentum dependence increases the emission of free nucleons. However, no heavier fragments are emitted artificially. The calculations performed within the framework of quantum molecular dynamics approach suggest that {MDI} strongly influence the system size dependence of fragment production. A comparison with {ALADiN} experimental data justifies the use of momentum dependent interactions in heavy-ion collisions.},
author = {Vermani, Yogesh K. and Goyal, Supriya and Puri, Rajeev K.},
citeulike-article-id = {5031885},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal\&id=PRVCAN000079000006064613000001\&idtype=cvips\&gifs=yes},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v79/e064613},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.79.064613},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.79.064613},
journal = {Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics)},
keywords = {central-collisions, fragment-production, momentum-dependent-interactions, quantum-molecular-dynamics},
number = {6},
pages = {064613},
posted-at = {2009-07-01 11:32:34},
priority = {2},
publisher = {APS},
title = {Momentum dependence of the nuclear mean field and multifragmentation in heavy-ion collisions},
volume = {79},
year = {2009}
}
@article{Wuenschel2009Isoscaling,
abstract = {In heavy-ion collisions, isoscaling provides a method for studying the evolution of nuclear symmetry energy as a function of excitation energy. One challenge in using isoscaling is to accurately determine the neutron-to-proton ratio ({N/Z}) of the fragmenting source. Isoscaling results are presented for the reactions of {86,78Kr}{64,58Ni} at 35 {MeV}/nucleon taken on the {NIMROD}-{ISiS} array at Texas {A\&M} University. The {N/Z} of the source was calculated from the isotopically identified fragments and experimentally measured neutrons emitted from reconstructed quasiprojectiles. These data exhibit isoscaling for elements with Z=1-17 over a broad range of isotopes. The isoscaling parameter alpha is shown to increase with increasing difference in the neutron composition (Delta) of the compared sources. For a selected Delta, the ratio {alpha/Delta} is also shown to decrease with increasing excitation energy. This may reflect a corresponding decrease in the nuclear symmetry energy.},
author = {Wuenschel, S. and Dienhoffer, R. and Souliotis, G. A. and Galanopoulos, S. and Kohley, Z. and Hagel, K. and Shetty, D. V. and Huseman, K. and May, L. W. and Soisson, S. N. and Stein, B. C. and Caraley, A. L. and Yennello, S. J.},
citeulike-article-id = {5031744},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal\&id=PRVCAN000079000006061602000001\&idtype=cvips\&gifs=yes},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v79/e061602},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.79.061602},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.79.061602},
journal = {Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics)},
keywords = {isoscaling, peripheral-collisions, symmetry-energy},
number = {6},
pages = {061602},
posted-at = {2009-07-01 11:21:47},
priority = {2},
publisher = {APS},
title = {Isoscaling of fragments with Z = 1-17 from reconstructed quasiprojectiles},
volume = {79},
year = {2009}
}
@article{Samaddar2009Scattering,
abstract = {Nuclear thermodynamic observables such as temperature, freeze-out volume, and specific heat as obtained from isotopic ratios in hot disassembled nuclear matter are examined in the light of the S-matrix approach to the nuclear equation of state. The values of the observables, as extracted without inclusion of scattering effects, are found to be modified appreciably in some cases when scattering between the fragment species is taken care of.},
author = {Samaddar, S. K. and De, J. N.},
citeulike-article-id = {4716455},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal\&id=PRVCAN000079000005051602000001\&idtype=cvips\&gifs=yes},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRC/v79/e051602},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.79.051602},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.79.051602},
journal = {Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics)},
keywords = {freeze-out-volume, nuclear-thermodynamics},
number = {5},
pages = {051602},
posted-at = {2009-06-02 10:09:12},
priority = {2},
publisher = {APS},
title = {Scattering effects on nuclear thermodynamic observables},
volume = {79},
year = {2009}
}
@article{Rivet1998Independence,
abstract = {Charged product multiplicities and Z distributions were measured for single multifragmenting sources produced in collisions between and at the same available energy per nucleon. Z distributions are found identical for both reactions while fragment multiplicities scale as the charge of the total systems. A complete dynamical simulation, in which multifragmentation originates in the spinodal decomposition of a finite piece of nuclear matter resulting from an incomplete fusion of projectile and target, well accounts for this experimental observation.},
author = {Rivet, M.},
citeulike-article-id = {4517796},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0370-2693(98)00525-5},
day = {2},
doi = {10.1016/S0370-2693(98)00525-5},
journal = {Physics Letters B},
keywords = {central-collisions, fragment-production, spinodal-decomposition, stochastic-mean-field},
month = jul,
number = {3-4},
pages = {217--222},
posted-at = {2009-05-14 11:33:48},
priority = {0},
title = {Independence of fragment charge distributions of the size of heavy multifragmenting sources},
volume = {430},
year = {1998}
}
@article{Shetty2009Nuclear,
abstract = {The decrease in the symmetry energy of hot nuclei populated in {58Ni} {58Ni}, {58Fe} {58Ni} and {58Fe} {58Fe} reactions at beam energies of 30, 40 and 47 {MeV}/nucleon, as a function of excitation energy is studied. It is observed that this decrease is mainly a consequence of increasing expansion or decreasing density rather than the increasing temperature. The results are in good agreement with the recently reported microscopic calculation based on the {Thomas-Fermi} approach. An empirical relation to study the symmetry energy of finite nuclei in various mass regions is proposed.},
author = {Shetty, D. V. and Souliotis, G. A. and Galanopoulos, S. and Kohley, Z. and Soisson, S. N. and Stein, B. C. and Wuenschel, S. and Yennello, S. J.},
citeulike-article-id = {4517778},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0954-3899/36/7/075103},
doi = {10.1088/0954-3899/36/7/075103},
journal = {Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics},
keywords = {expansion, symmetry-energy},
number = {7},
pages = {075103},
posted-at = {2009-05-14 11:20:36},
priority = {3},
title = {Nuclear expansion and symmetry energy of hot nuclei},
volume = {36},
year = {2009}
}
@article{Bonnet2009Fragment,
abstract = {Fragment properties of hot fragmenting sources of similar sizes produced in central and semi-peripheral collisions are compared in the excitation energy range {inlMMLBox} . For semi-peripheral collisions a method for selecting compact quasi-projectiles sources in velocity space similar to those of fused systems (central collisions) is proposed. The two major results are related to collective energy. The weak radial collective energy observed for quasi-projectile sources is shown to originate from thermal pressure only. The larger fragment multiplicity observed for fused systems and their more symmetric fragmentation are related to the extra radial collective energy due to expansion following a compression phase during central collisions. A first attempt to locate where the different sources break in the phase diagram is proposed.},
author = {Bonnet, E. and Borderie, B. and Le Neindre, N. and Rivet, M. and Bougault, R. and Chbihi, A. and Dayras, R. and Frankland, J. and Galichet, E. and Gagnon-Moisan, F.},
citeulike-article-id = {4516394},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2008.11.005},
day = {15},
doi = {10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2008.11.005},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
keywords = {central-collisions, expansion, fragment-production, peripheral-collisions, phase-diagram},
month = jan,
number = {1-4},
pages = {1--18},
posted-at = {2009-05-14 09:50:18},
priority = {0},
title = {Fragment properties of fragmenting heavy nuclei produced in central and semi-peripheral collisions},
volume = {816},
year = {2009}
}
@article{Tani2009Baryon,
abstract = {We suggest using net-baryon rapidity distributions in central relativistic heavy-ion collisions at energies reached at the {CERN} Super Proton Synchrotron, {BNL} Relativistic {Heavy-Ion} Collider ({RHIC}), and {CERN} {LHC} in order to probe saturation physics. Within the color glass condensate framework based on small-coupling {QCD}, net-baryon rapidity distributions are shown to exhibit geometric scaling. In a comparison with {RHIC} data in {AuAu} collisions at sqrt(s[sub {NN}])=62.4 {GeV} and 200 {GeV} the gradual approach to the gluon saturation regime is investigated. Predictions for net-baryon rapidity spectra and the mean rapidity loss in central {PbPb} collisions at {LHC} energies of sqrt(s[sub {NN}])=5.52 {TeV} are made.},
author = {Tani, Yacine M. and Wolschin, Georg},
citeulike-article-id = {4509644},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal\&id=PRLTAO000102000018182301000001\&idtype=cvips\&gifs=yes},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v102/e182301},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.182301},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.182301},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
keywords = {central-collisions, geometric-scaling, stopping},
number = {18},
pages = {182301},
posted-at = {2009-05-13 10:56:46},
priority = {2},
publisher = {APS},
title = {Baryon Stopping as a New Probe of Geometric Scaling},
volume = {102},
year = {2009}
}
@article{Barz1991Flow,
abstract = {Central events in {36Ar} and {16O} induced reactions on {Ag/Br} a 65±15 {MeV}/nucleon and 210±10 {MeV} nucleon bombarding energy, respectively, have been analysed. For the {36Ar} induced reaction a flow energy of about 3 {MeV}/nucleon has been deduced for intermediate mass fragments. Evaporative processes can be ruled out as the origin of the intermediate mass fragments since the emission time is much larger than the expansion time estimated from the flow analysis.},
author = {Barz, H. W. and Bondorf, J. P. and Donangelo, R. and Elm\'{e}r, R. and Hansen, F. S. and Jakobsson, B. and Karlsson, L. and Nifenecker, H. and Schulz, H. and Schussler, F. and Sneppen, K. and S\"{o}derstr\"{o}m, K.},
citeulike-article-id = {4389847},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9474(91)90621-C},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TVB-473MBGT-2F/2/f3ba86e7efb0dfa7cf33224900b42c77},
day = {2},
doi = {10.1016/0375-9474(91)90621-C},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
keywords = {central-collisions, flow, fragment-production},
month = sep,
number = {2},
pages = {453--460},
posted-at = {2009-04-24 09:46:27},
priority = {0},
title = {Flow effects in intermediate-energy nuclear collisions},
volume = {531},
year = {1991}
}
@article{Neubert2003Limits,
abstract = {Experimental data related to fragment production in central Au on Au collisions were analysed in the framework of a modified statistical model which considers cluster production both prior and at the equilibrated stage. The analysis provides limits to the number of nucleons and to the temperature of the equilibrated source. The rather moderate temperatures obtained from experimental double-yield ratios of d, t, {3He} and {4He} are in agreement with the model calculations. A phenomenological relation was established between the collective flow and the chemical temperature in these reactions. It is shown that dynamical mechanisms of fragment production, e.g. coalescence, dominate at high energies. It is demonstrated that coalescence may be consistent with chemical equilibrium between the produced fragments. The different meaning of chemical and kinetic temperatures is discussed.},
author = {Neubert, W. and Botvina, A. S.},
citeulike-article-id = {4389756},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epja/i2002-10160-3},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/5ml2ucnjyrqny3ua},
day = {1},
doi = {10.1140/epja/i2002-10160-3},
journal = {The European Physical Journal A - Hadrons and Nuclei},
keywords = {central-collisions, coalescence, equilibration, flow, fragment-production},
month = aug,
number = {4},
pages = {559--571},
posted-at = {2009-04-24 08:50:55},
priority = {4},
title = {Limits of complete equilibration of fragments produced in central Au on Au collisions at intermediate energies},
volume = {17},
year = {2003}
}
@article{Tabacaru2003Fragment,
abstract = {{Abstract.\ \ Enhanced} production of events with almost equal-sized fragments is experimentally revealed by charge correlations in the multifragmentation of a finite nuclear system selected in {129Xe} central collisions on nat Sn. The evolution of their weight with the incident energy: 32, 39, 45, 50 {AMeV}, is measured. Dynamical stochastic mean-field simulations performed at 32 {AMeV}, in which spinodal instabilities are responsible for multifragmentation, exhibit a similar enhancement of this kind of events. The above experimental observation evidences the spinodal decomposition of hot finite nuclear matter as the origin of multifragmentation in the Fermi energy regime.},
author = {Tabacaru, G. and Borderie, B. and D\'{e}sesquelles, P. and P\^{a}rlog, M. and Rivet, M. and Bougault, R. and Bouriquet, B. and Buta, A. and Galichet, E. and Guiot, B. and Lautesse, P. and Le Neindre, N. and Manduci, L. and Rosato, E. and Tamain, B. and Vigilante, M. and Wieleczko, J.},
citeulike-article-id = {4387319},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epja/i2002-10166-9},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/g4tt0wxgvg9qvyvb},
day = {22},
doi = {10.1140/epja/i2002-10166-9},
journal = {The European Physical Journal A - Hadrons and Nuclei},
keywords = {central-collisions, fragment-charge-correlations, fragment-production, spinodal-decomposition, stochastic-mean-field},
month = oct,
number = {1},
pages = {103--116},
posted-at = {2009-04-23 15:39:49},
priority = {0},
title = {Fragment charge correlations and spinodal decomposition in finite nuclear systems},
volume = {18},
year = {2003}
}
@article{Lehaut2009Isoscaling,
abstract = {The energetic properties of nuclear clusters inside a low-density, finite-temperature medium are studied with a lattice gas model including isospin dependence and Coulomb forces. Important deviations are observed with respect to the Fisher approximation of an ideal gas of noninteracting clusters, but a simple modified energy-density functional can still describe the global energetics. The multifragmentation regime is dominated by combinatorial effects, but the isoscaling of the largest fragment appears to be a promising observable for the experimental measurement of the symmetry energy.},
author = {Lehaut, G. and Gulminelli, F. and Lopez, O.},
citeulike-article-id = {4386024},
citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal\&id=PRLTAO000102000014142503000001\&idtype=cvips\&gifs=yes},
citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v102/e142503},
citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.142503},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.142503},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
keywords = {biggest-fragment, isoscaling, lattice-gas-model, symmetry-energy},
number = {14},
pages = {142503},
posted-at = {2009-04-23 13:10:51},
priority = {0},
publisher = {APS},
title = {Isoscaling as a Measure of Symmetry Energy in the Lattice Gas Model},
volume = {102},
year = {2009}
}
@book{Frankland2004CollGANIL,
author = {Frankland, John David and Chbihi, Abdou},
title = {Colloque GANIL},
publisher = {Giens},
address = {France},
year = {2004}
}
@article{Chen2003Ratio,
author = {Chen, L. W. and some other guys},
journal = {Nuclear Physics A},
volume = {729},
pages = {809-834},
year = {2003}
}
@article{Smoluchowski1916Aggregation,
author = {Smoluchowski, M. V.},
journal = {Physik. Z.},
volume = {17},
pages = {557-585},
year = {1916}
}
@book{Botet2011Tokyo,
author = {Botet, Robert},
journal = {Proceedings of science},
title = {The Seventh Workshop on Particle Correlations and Femtoscopy},
publisher = {University of Tokyo},
address = {Japan},
year = {2011}
}
@book{Lehaut2009PhDThesis,
author = {Lehaut, G.},
title = {Ph.D Thesis},
publisher = {Universit\'e de Caen},
address = {http://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00426878},
year = {2009}
}