Abstract : In this article, we define and study a geometry and an order on the set of partitions of an even number of objects. One of the definitions involves the partition algebra, a structure of algebra on the set of such partitions depending on an integer parameter N. Then we emulate the theory of random matrices in a combinatorial framework: for any parameter N, we introduce a family of linear forms on the partition algebras which allows us to define a notion of weak convergence similar to the convergence in moments in random matrices theory. A renormalization of the partition algebras allows us to consider the weak convergence as a simple convergence in a fixed space. This leads us to the definition of a deformed partition algebra for any integer parameter N and to the definition of two transforms: the cumulants transform and the exclusive moments transform. Using an improved triangular inequality for the distance defined on partitions, we prove that the deformed partition algebras, endowed with a deformation of the linear forms converge as N go to infinity. This result allows us to prove combinatorial properties about geodesics and a convergence theorem for semi-groups of functions on partitions. At the end we study a sub-algebra of functions on infinite partitions with finite support : a new addition operation and a notion of R-transform are defined. We introduce the set of multiplicative functions which becomes a Lie group for the new addition and multiplication operations. For each of them, the Lie algebra is studied. The appropriate tools are developed in order to understand the algebraic fluctuations of the moments and cumulants for converging sequences. This allows us to extend all the results we got for the zero order of fluctuations to any order.