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The Projective Line Over the Finite Quotient Ring GF(2)[$x$]/$\langle x^{3} - x \rangle$ and Quantum Entanglement\\ II. The Mermin ``Magic" Square/Pentagram

Abstract : In 1993, Mermin (Rev. Mod. Phys. 65, 803--815) gave lucid and strikingly simple proofs of the Bell-Kochen-Specker (BKS) theorem in Hilbert spaces of dimensions four and eight by making use of what has since been referred to as the Mermin(-Peres) ``magic square" and the Mermin pentagram, respectively. The former is a $3 \times 3$ array of nine observables commuting pairwise in each row and column and arranged so that their product properties contradict those of the assigned eigenvalues. The latter is a set of ten observables arranged in five groups of four lying along five edges of the pentagram and characterized by similar contradiction. An interesting one-to-one correspondence between the operators of the Mermin-Peres square and the points of the projective line over the product ring ${\rm GF}(2) \otimes \rm{GF}(2)$ is established. Under this mapping, the concept ``mutually commuting" translates into ``mutually distant" and the distinguishing character of the third column's observables has its counterpart in the distinguished properties of the coordinates of the corresponding points, whose entries are both either zero-divisors, or units. The ten operators of the Mermin pentagram answer to a specific subset of points of the line over GF(2)[$x$]/$\langle x^{3} - x \rangle$. The situation here is, however, more intricate as there are two different configurations that seem to serve equally well our purpose. The first one comprises the three distinguished points of the (sub)line over GF(2), their three ``Jacobson" counterparts and the four points whose both coordinates are zero-divisors; the other features the neighbourhood of the point ($1, 0$) (or, equivalently, that of ($0, 1$)). Some other ring lines that might be relevant for BKS proofs in higher dimensions are also mentioned.
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 23, 2006 - 10:55:01 AM
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Metod Saniga, Michel Planat, Milan Minarovjech. The Projective Line Over the Finite Quotient Ring GF(2)[$x$]/$\langle x^{3} - x \rangle$ and Quantum Entanglement\\ II. The Mermin ``Magic" Square/Pentagram. Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, Consultants bureau, 2007, 151, pp.625-631. ⟨hal-00021604⟩

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