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Altérations du muscle squelettique humain lors du vieillissement associé ou non au syndrome métabolique et identification de nouveaux marqueurs

Abstract : Muscle aging (sarcopenia) contributes to both loss of autonomy and decreased capacity to prevent metabolic aggressions, but the mechanisms involved are complex and remain unclear. Therefore in this thesis, we have undertaken a top-down differential proteomic approach to reveal novel potential biomarkers of sarcopenia, and 73 differentially expressed proteins were identified. In addition to alterations of skeletal muscle, aging favors metabolic syndrome (MS), a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. However, the effects of MS on skeletal muscle in old individuals have poorly been investigated. Immunohistochemical studies were performed with vastus lateralis muscle biopsies from young (25 years) and old (75 years) men with and without MS, to reveal the importance of age-dependent and MS-associated modifications on fiber-type characteristics. An atrophy of type-II fibers and altered fiber shape characterized muscle aging in lean healthy men. In contrast, increased cross sectional area of fibers, and reduced cytochrome c oxidase activity in all fiber types characterized MS, even in active elderly men. Moreover, aging and particularly MS were associated with accumulation of intramyocellular lipid droplets. Finally, while few differences were observed in lean healthy men, the capillary supply was strongly altered in old men with MS. Thereafter, a differential proteomic approach identified 42 potential biomarkers implicated in muscle aging and/or in metabolic syndrome. Overall the results obtained in this thesis may improve our understanding of the factors influencing sarcopenia, and may both identify new regulatory pathways and provide potential therapeutical targets.
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https://hal.inrae.fr/tel-02811232
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  • HAL Id : tel-02811232, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 402675

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Marine Gueugneau. Altérations du muscle squelettique humain lors du vieillissement associé ou non au syndrome métabolique et identification de nouveaux marqueurs. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I, 2013. Français. ⟨tel-02811232⟩

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