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Propriétés anti-athérogènes du DHA : effets nutrigénomiques au niveau aortique et rôle potentiel des métabolites issus de la peroxydation

Abstract : Numerous studies have reported beneficial effects of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-ω3PUFAs) on atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular events. These fatty acids are mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). LC-ω3PUFAs exert their athero-protective action mainly by a reduction of triglyceridemia, increased endothelial relaxation, and reduced inflammation. Their specific action at the vascular level is suggested. Their mechanisms of action are still only partially understood because of the complexity of action of LC-ω3PUFAs at the cellular level. LC-ω3PUFAs affect several membrane or cytosolic proteins, including transcription factors, which modulate numerous gene expression. The complexity is further increased when considering a wide range of oxygenated metabolites derived from LC-ω3PUFAs. Among them, the metabolites from lipid peroxidation may be produced in abundance during atherogenesis but their bioactivity is almost unknown. There are still major issues to be clarified, such as the identification of cellular and molecular targets at the vascular level ; the bioactivity of peroxidized metabolites that could play a key role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. The objective of this work was to study the impact of DHA at the vascular level and to evaluate the bioactivity of selected metabolites from DHA lipid peroxidation. Studies on anti-atherogenic properties of DHA have so far been carried out only in a targeted manner that does not provide a comprehensive and integrated view of its spectrum of action. Nutrigenomics appears to be a relevant approach to study the effects of DHA at the vascular level. In vivo study was performed on LDLR-/- atherosclerotic mice supplemented or not with DHA. The athero-protective effect of DHA has been confirmed in the previous study performed by our team reporting a 35% decrease of the atherosclerotic lesion in the DHA group. Aorta proteome study demonstrated a significant alteration of the expression of proteins involved mainly in the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and also in antioxidant defenses. At the transcriptome level, the inflammatory component of atherosclerosis appears to be a major target of DHA at the vascular level. More precisely, DHA supplementation reduced the expression of genes involved in cell adhesion, chemotaxis and antigen presentation. Several genes were found to be phenotypic markers of macrophages and analysis of transcriptional regulators showed a possible contribution of PPARγ, IFNγ and NFκB to the observed modulation of gene expression. Our results suggest a preferential orientation of macrophages to a M2 type repair phenotype in mice receiving DHA supplementation. This was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis at the aorta which revealed a greater abundance of arginase I. We chose a focused in vitro study of the action of specific DHA peroxidized metabolites: the neuroprostanes on a human macrophages. This study allowed us to confirm our hypothesis that DHA may act at least in part via its peroxidized metabolites. The macrophages exposition to 2 types of neuroprostanes (4-F4t and 14-A4-Neuroprostanes) has significantly reduced the expression and secretion of several pro-inflammatory mediators. Preliminary results suggest that these anti-inflammatory effects are PPARγ-independent but related to inhibition of NFκB pathway. In vivo study, and nutrigenomics approach, allowed us to explore the impact of DHA at the vascular level by an open and unbiased way. The results are that DHA activates energy metabolism and antioxidant defenses and reduces the inflammatory component of atherosclerosis with a possible involvement of DHA in the phenotypic direction of macrophages to a M2 type repair phenotype. The results obtained in vitro on primary human macrophages confirmed that DHA peroxidized metabolites contribute to its anti-inflammatory properties.
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Laurie Joumard-Cubizolles. Propriétés anti-athérogènes du DHA : effets nutrigénomiques au niveau aortique et rôle potentiel des métabolites issus de la peroxydation. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I, 2013. Français. ⟨tel-02810465⟩

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