Interactions flavivirus-moustiques : diversité et transmission

Abstract : Flaviviruses are RNA virus among which some are arboviruses transmitted between vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors, like mosquitoes. The interaction with mosquitoes is key in the biology of flaviviruses because it influences their genetic diversity and transmission. However, some aspects however are still poorly understood. At the heart of the work presented in this dissertation, strategies based on ‘big data’, both by taking advantage of modern technologies and by compiling older literature, highlighted new aspects of the complex relationships between flaviviruses and mosquitoes. While exploring Anopheles mosquito genomes, we identified and characterized endogenous viral elements of flaviviral origin in Anopheles sinensis and An. minimus, which supports the existence of flaviviruses infecting Anopheles mosquitoes and highlights new aspected of their diversity. Besides, we explored, by deep sequencing, the fine-tuned interaction between genotypes of the mosquito Aedes aegypti and the intra-host diversity of dengue virus 1. Our results showed a strong effect of genetic drift during initial infection, reducing the relative importance of natural selection, and a modulation of the intra-host viral genetic diversity by the mosquito genotype. Finally, we assembled the litterature on arbovirus vertical transmission in the mosquito vector, i.e. from an infected female to her offspring, in order to identify underlying technical and biological predictors. Our results increase our understanding of this transmission mode and the strategies employed by arboviruses to persist in their environment.
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Sébastian Lequime. Interactions flavivirus-moustiques : diversité et transmission. Virologie. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PA066081⟩. ⟨tel-01545669⟩

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