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Broadband Multi-wavelength Properties of M87 during the 2017 Event Horizon Telescope Campaign

J.C. Algaba J. Anczarski K. Asada M. Baloković S. Chandra Y.-Z. Cui A.D. Falcone C. Goddi K. Hada D. Haggard S. Jorstad A. Kaur T. Kawashima G. Keating M. Kino S. Komossa E.V. Kravchenko T.P. Krichbaum S.-S. Lee R.-S. Lu M. Lucchini S. Markoff J. Neilsen M.A. Nowak J. Park G. Principe V. Ramakrishnan M.T. Reynolds M. Sasada S.S. Savchenko K.E. Williamson Tomoya Hirota Lang Cui Kotaro Niinuma Hyunwook Ro Nobuyuki Sakai Satoko Sawada-Satoh Kiyoaki Wajima Na Wang Xiang Liu Yoshinori Yonekura Kazunori Akiyama Antxon Alberdi Walter Alef Richard Anantua Rebecca Azulay Anne-Kathrin Baczko David Ball John Barrett Dan Bintley Bradford A. Benson Lindy Blackburn Raymond Blundell Wilfred Boland Katherine L. Bouman Geoffrey C. Bower Hope Boyce Michael Bremer 1 Christiaan D. Brinkerink Roger Brissenden Silke Britzen Avery E. Broderick Dominique Broguiere 1 Thomas Bronzwaer Do-Young Byun John E. Carlstrom Andrew Chael Chi-Kwan Chan Shami Chatterjee Koushik Chatterjee Ming-Tang Chen Yongjun Chen Paul M. Chesler Ilje Cho Pierre Christian John E. Conway James M. Cordes Thomas M. Crawford Geoffrey B. Crew Alejandro Cruz-Osorio Jordy Davelaar Mariafelicia de Laurentis Roger Deane Jessica Dempsey Gregory Desvignes 2 Jason Dexter Sheperd S. Doeleman Ralph P. Eatough Heino Falcke Joseph Farah Vincent L. Fish E. Fomalont H. Alyson Ford Raquel Fraga-Encinas Per Friberg Christian M. Fromm Antonio Fuentes Peter Galison Charles F. Gammie Roberto García 1 Olivier Gentaz 1 Boris Georgiev Roman Gold José L. Gómez Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz Minfeng Gu Mark Gurwell Michael H. Hecht Ronald Hesper Luis C. Ho Paul Ho Mareki Honma Chih-Wei L. Huang Lei Huang David H. Hughes Shiro Ikeda Makoto Inoue Sara Issaoun David J. James Buell T. Jannuzi Michael Janssen Britton Jeter Wu Jiang Alejandra Jimenez-Rosales Michael D. Johnson Taehyun Jung Mansour Karami Ramesh Karuppusamy Mark Kettenis Dong-Jin Kim Jongsoo Kim Junhan Kim Jun Yi Koay Yutaro Kofuji Patrick M. Koch Shoko Koyama Michael Kramer Carsten Kramer 1 Cheng-Yu Kuo Tod R. Lauer Aviad Levis Yan-Rong Li Zhiyuan Li Michael Lindqvist Rocco Lico Greg Lindahl Jun Liu Kuo Liu Elisabetta Liuzzo Wen-Ping Lo Andrei P. Lobanov Laurent Loinard Colin Lonsdale Nicholas R. Macdonald Jirong Mao Nicola Marchili Daniel P. Marrone Alan P. Marscher Iván Martí-Vidal Satoki Matsushita Lynn D. Matthews Lia Medeiros Karl M. Menten Izumi Mizuno Yosuke Mizuno James M. Moran Kotaro Moriyama Monika Moscibrodzka Cornelia Müller Gibwa Musoke Alejandro Mus Mejías Hiroshi Nagai Neil M. Nagar Masanori Nakamura Ramesh Narayan Gopal Narayanan Iniyan Natarajan Antonios Nathanail Roberto Neri 1 Chunchong Ni Aristeidis Noutsos Hiroki Okino Héctor Olivares Gisela N. Ortiz-León Tomoaki Oyama Feryal Özel Daniel C.M. Palumbo Nimesh Patel Ue-Li Pen Dominic W. Pesce Vincent Piétu 1 Richard Plambeck Aleksandar Popstefanija Oliver Porth Felix M. Pötzl Ben Prather Jorge A. Preciado-López Dimitrios Psaltis Hung-Yi Pu Ramprasad Rao Mark G. Rawlings Alexander W. Raymond Luciano Rezzolla Angelo Ricarte Bart Ripperda Freek Roelofs Alan Rogers Eduardo Ros Mel Rose Arash Roshanineshat Helge Rottmann Alan L. Roy Chet Ruszczyk Kazi L.J. Rygl Salvador Sánchez 3 David Sánchez-Arguelles Tuomas Savolainen F. Peter Schloerb Karl-Friedrich Schuster 1 Lijing Shao Zhiqiang Shen Des Small Bong Won Sohn Jason Soohoo He Sun Fumie Tazaki Alexandra J. Tetarenko Paul Tiede Remo P.J. Tilanus Michael Titus Kenji Toma Pablo Torne 3 Tyler Trent Efthalia Traianou Sascha Trippe Ilse van Bemmel Huib Jan van Langevelde Daniel R. van Rossum Jan Wagner Derek Ward-Thompson John Wardle Jonathan Weintroub Norbert Wex Robert Wharton Maciek Wielgus George N. Wong Qingwen Wu Doosoo Yoon André Young Ken Young Ziri Younsi Feng Yuan Ye-Fei Yuan J. Anton Zensus Guang-Yao Zhao Shan-Shan Zhao M. Giroletti F. d'Ammando M. Orienti H. Abdalla R. Adam 4 F. Aharonian F. Ait Benkhali E.O. Angüner 5 C. Arcaro C. Armand 6 T. Armstrong H. Ashkar 7 M. Backes V. Baghmanyan V. Barbosa Martins A. Barnacka M. Barnard Y. Becherini D. Berge K. Bernlöhr B. Bi M. Böttcher C. Boisson 8 J. Bolmont 9 M. de Bony de Lavergne 6 M. Breuhaus F. Brun 7 P. Brun 7 M. Bryan M. Büchele T. Bulik T. Bylund S. Caroff 9 A. Carosi 6 S. Casanova T. Chand A. Chen G. Cotter M. Curyło J. Damascene Mbarubucyeye I.D. Davids J. Davies C. Deil J. Devin 10 P. Dewilt L. Dirson A. Djannati-Ataï 11 A. Dmytriiev 8 A. Donath V. Doroshenko C. Duffy J. Dyks K. Egberts F. Eichhorn S. Einecke G. Emery 9 J.-P. Ernenwein 5 K. Feijen S. Fegan 4 A. Fiasson 6 G. Fichet de Clairfontaine 8 G. Fontaine 4 S. Funk M. Füßling S. Gabici 11 Y.A. Gallant 12 G. Giavitto L. Giunti 7 D. Glawion J.F. Glicenstein 7 D. Gottschall M.-H. Grondin 10 J. Hahn M. Haupt G. Hermann J.A. Hinton W. Hofmann C. Hoischen T.L. Holch M. Holler M. Hörbe D. Horns D. Huber M. Jamrozy D. Jankowsky F. Jankowsky A. Jardin-Blicq V. Joshi I. Jung-Richardt E. Kasai M.A. Kastendieck K. Katarzyński U. Katz D. Khangulyan B. Khélifi 11 S. Klepser W. Kluźniak Nu. Komin R. Konno K. Kosack 7 D. Kostunin M. Kreter G. Lamanna 6 A. Lemière 11 M. Lemoine-Goumard 10 J.-P. Lenain 9 C. Levy 9 T. Lohse I. Lypova J. Mackey J. Majumdar D. Malyshev V. Marandon P. Marchegiani A. Marcowith 12 A. Mares 10 G. Martí-Devesa R. Marx G. Maurin 6 P.J. Meintjes M. Meyer R. Moderski M. Mohamed L. Mohrmann A. Montanari 7 C. Moore P. Morris E. Moulin 7 J. Muller 4 T. Murach K. Nakashima A. Nayerhoda M. de Naurois 4 H. Ndiyavala F. Niederwanger J. Niemiec L. Oakes P. O'Brien H. Odaka S. Ohm L. Olivera-Nieto E. de Ona Wilhelmi M. Ostrowski M. Panter S. Panny R.D. Parsons G. Peron B. Peyaud 7 Q. Piel 6 S. Pita 11 V. Poireau 6 A. Priyana Noel D.A. Prokhorov H. Prokoph G. Pühlhofer M. Punch 13 A. Quirrenbach R. Rauth P. Reichherzer 7 A. Reimer O. Reimer Q. Remy M. Renaud 12 F. Rieger L. Rinchiuso 7 C. Romoli G. Rowell B. Rudak E. Ruiz-Velasco V. Sahakian S. Sailer D.A. Sanchez 6 A. Santangelo M. Sasaki M. Scalici H.M. Schutte U. Schwanke S. Schwemmer M. Seglar-Arroyo 7 M. Senniappan A.S. Seyffert N. Shafi K. Shiningayamwe R. Simoni A. Sinha 11 H. Sol 8 A. Specovius S. Spencer M. Spir-Jacob 11 L. Sun R. Steenkamp C. Stegmann S. Steinmassl C. Steppa T. Takahashi T. Tavernier 7 A.M. Taylor R. Terrier 11 D. Tiziani M. Tluczykont L. Tomankova C. Trichard 4 M. Tsirou 12 R. Tuffs Y. Uchiyama D.J. van der Walt C. van Eldik C. van Rensburg B. van Soelen G. Vasileiadis 12 J. Veh C. Venter P. Vincent 9 J. Vink H.J. Völk T. Vuillaume 6 Z. Wadiasingh S.J. Wagner J. Watson F. Werner R. White A. Wierzcholska Yu Wun Wong A. Yusafzai M. Zacharias 14 R. Zanin D. Zargaryan A.A. Zdziarski A. Zech 8 S.J. Zhu J. Zorn S. Zouari 11 N. Żywucka V.A. Acciari S. Ansoldi L.A. Antonelli A. Arbet Engels M. Artero K. Asano D. Baack A. Babić A. Baquero U. Barres de Almeida J.A. Barrio J. Becerra González W. Bednarek L. Bellizzi E. Bernardini M. Bernardos A. Berti J. Besenrieder W. Bhattacharyya C. Bigongiari A. Biland O. Blanch G. Bonnoli G. Busetto R. Carosi G. Ceribella M. Cerruti Y. Chai A. Chilingarian S. Cikota S.M. Colak E. Colombo J.L. Contreras J. Cortina S. Covino G. d'Amico V. d'Elia P. da Vela F. Dazzi A. de Angelis B. de Lotto M. Delfino J. Delgado C. Delgado Mendez D. Depaoli F. Di Pierro L. Di Venere E. Souto Espiñeira D. Dominis Prester A. Donini D. Dorner M. Doro D. Elsaesser V. Fallah Ramazani A. Fattorini G. Ferrara M.V. Fonseca L. Font C. Fruck S. Fukami R.J. García López M. Garczarczyk S. Gasparyan M. Gaug N. Giglietto F. Giordano P. Gliwny N. Godinović J.G. Green D. Green D. Hadasch A. Hahn L. Heckmann J. Herrera J. Hoang D. Hrupec M. Hütten T. Inada S. Inoue K. Ishio Y. Iwamura I. Jiménez J. Jormanainen L. Jouvin Y. Kajiwara M. Karjalainen D. Kerszberg Y. Kobayashi H. Kubo J. Kushida A. Lamastra D. Lelas F. Leone E. Lindfors S. Lombardi F. Longo R. López-Coto M. López-Moya A. López-Oramas S. Loporchio B. Machado de Oliveira Fraga C. Maggio P. Majumdar M. Makariev M. Mallamaci G. Maneva M. Manganaro K. Mannheim L. Maraschi M. Mariotti M. Martínez D. Mazin S. Menchiari S. Mender S. Mićanović D. Miceli T. Miener M. Minev J.M. Miranda R. Mirzoyan E. Molina A. Moralejo D. Morcuende V. Moreno E. Moretti V. Neustroev C. Nigro K. Nilsson K. Nishijima K. Noda S. Nozaki Y. Ohtani T. Oka J. Otero-Santos S. Paiano M. Palatiello D. Paneque R. Paoletti J.M. Paredes L. Pavletić P. Peñil C. Perennes M. Persic P.G. Prada Moroni E. Prandini C. Priyadarshi I. Puljak W. Rhode M. Ribó J. Rico C. Righi A. Rugliancich L. Saha N. Sahakyan T. Saito S. Sakurai K. Satalecka F.G. Saturni B. Schleicher K. Schmidt T. Schweizer J. Sitarek I. Šnidarić D. Sobczynska A. Spolon A. Stamerra D. Strom M. Strzys Y. Suda T. Surić M. Takahashi F. Tavecchio P. Temnikov T. Terzić M. Teshima L. Tosti S. Truzzi A. Tutone S. Ubach J. van Scherpenberg G. Vanzo M. Vazquez Acosta S. Ventura V. Verguilov C.F. Vigorito V. Vitale I. Vovk M. Will C. Wunderlich D. Zarić C.B. Adams W. Benbow A. Brill M. Capasso J.L. Christiansen A.J. Chromey M.K. Daniel M. Errando K. a Farrell Q. Feng J.P. Finley L. Fortson A. Furniss A. Gent C. Giuri T. Hassan O. Hervet J. Holder G. Hughes T.B. Humensky W. Jin P. Kaaret M. Kertzman D. Kieda S. Kumar M.J. Lang M. Lundy G. Maier P. Moriarty R. Mukherjee D. Nieto M. Nievas-Rosillo S. O'Brien R.A. Ong A.N. Otte S. Patel K. Pfrang M. Pohl R.R. Prado E. Pueschel J. Quinn K. Ragan P.T. Reynolds D. Ribeiro G.T. Richards E. Roache C. Rulten J.L. Ryan M. Santander G.H. Sembroski R. Shang A. Weinstein D.A. Williams T. J Williamson
Abstract : In 2017, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration succeeded in capturing the first direct image of the center of the M87 galaxy. The asymmetric ring morphology and size are consistent with theoretical expectations for a weakly accreting supermassive black hole of mass ∼6.5 × 109 M ⊙. The EHTC also partnered with several international facilities in space and on the ground, to arrange an extensive, quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength campaign. This Letter presents the results and analysis of this campaign, as well as the multi-wavelength data as a legacy data repository. We captured M87 in a historically low state, and the core flux dominates over HST-1 at high energies, making it possible to combine core flux constraints with the more spatially precise very long baseline interferometry data. We present the most complete simultaneous multi-wavelength spectrum of the active nucleus to date, and discuss the complexity and caveats of combining data from different spatial scales into one broadband spectrum. We apply two heuristic, isotropic leptonic single-zone models to provide insight into the basic source properties, but conclude that a structured jet is necessary to explain M87’s spectrum. We can exclude that the simultaneous γ-ray emission is produced via inverse Compton emission in the same region producing the EHT mm-band emission, and further conclude that the γ-rays can only be produced in the inner jets (inward of HST-1) if there are strongly particle-dominated regions. Direct synchrotron emission from accelerated protons and secondaries cannot yet be excluded.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, April 28, 2021 - 6:03:16 AM
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J.C. Algaba, J. Anczarski, K. Asada, M. Baloković, S. Chandra, et al.. Broadband Multi-wavelength Properties of M87 during the 2017 Event Horizon Telescope Campaign. Astrophys.J.Lett., 2021, 911 (1), pp.L11. ⟨10.3847/2041-8213/abef71⟩. ⟨hal-03210362⟩

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