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Physical Zero-Knowledge Proof for Makaro

Abstract : Makaro is a logic game similar to Sudoku. In Makaro, a grid has to be filled with numbers such that: given areas contain all the numbers up to the number of cells in the area, no adjacent numbers are equal and some cells provide restrictions on the largest adjacent number. We propose a proven secure physical algorithm, only relying on cards, to realize a zero-knowledge proof of knowledge for Makaro. It allows a player to show that he knows a solution without revealing it.
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Contributor : Jannik Dreier <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, October 17, 2018 - 10:41:35 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, May 11, 2021 - 11:37:30 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Friday, January 18, 2019 - 4:42:37 PM


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Xavier Bultel, Jannik Dreier, Jean-Guillaume Dumas, Pascal Lafourcade, Daiki Miyahara, et al.. Physical Zero-Knowledge Proof for Makaro. SSS 2018 - 20th International Symposium on Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems, Nov 2018, Tokyo, Japan. pp.111-125, ⟨10.1007/978-3-030-03232-6_8⟩. ⟨hal-01898048⟩



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