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Routage efficace et garanti dans les réseaux de capteurs sans fil

Henry-Joseph Audeoud 1, 2 
2 Drakkar
LIG - Laboratoire d'Informatique de Grenoble
Abstract : The wireless sensor networks that we work with in this thesis are a set of devices connected to eachother by low-rate and low-power technologies. Their role is to produce measures on the physical environ-ment around them (meteorological and climate condition tracking, monitoring of industrial installations,control of distribution grids, topographical surveillance. . . ). These measures must then be collected out ofthe network. Since the sensors have short range radios, transmissions are multi-hop, the sensors close tothe destination relaying the information transmitted by those which are further away from it. Because ofthe movement of the nodes themselves or of objects in their environment interfering with wireless commu-nications, the exact topology of the network is subject to change. In addition, the battery-powered sensorsare limited in energy and therefore in transmission abilities. The power-saving techniques applied to turnoff the radio most of the time impose synchronization constraints.To route information through the network, the routing protocol establishes routes, so that the sensorscan relay information from and to the network border router through reliable links leading to the destina-tion through short paths. Due to sensor limitations, the routing must be energy efficient, i.e. the overloadof the radio transmissions involved by the routing algorithm itself must be as lightweight as possible. Itmust also be able to restore connectivity on a network topology change without creating routing loops thatnegatively impact the quality of service and the energy reserves of the nodes.This document describes a routing protocol that meets these objectives. It is capable of creating a self-healing collection tree that extracts information out of the network, as well as from the routes to distributecommand messages or acknowledgment to the nodes. It also validates the data path of each packet toensure that they never enter a routing loop. The protocol is run in simulations and also on real platformexperiments, showing the effectiveness of the proposed mechanisms.In order to improve its ability to choose the best available links, I also propose the use of a new esti-mation of their quality. It is based on two complementary measurements: a long-term measurement ofthe ambient noise level on the radio channel, and a measurement of the power of the signal received fromthe transmitter. These two measurements provide an estimate of the signal-to-noise ratio, and thereby theexpected reception rate. This estimate is both accurate, quick to obtain, and adapted to the constraints ofsensors and networks we are talking about.
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https://hal.univ-grenoble-alpes.fr/tel-02482139
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Submitted on : Tuesday, May 19, 2020 - 5:17:09 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, July 6, 2022 - 4:22:59 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-02482139, version 2

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Henry-Joseph Audeoud. Routage efficace et garanti dans les réseaux de capteurs sans fil. Système d'exploitation [cs.OS]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019GREAM055⟩. ⟨tel-02482139v2⟩

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