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Prior infection by seasonal coronaviruses, as assessed by serology, does not prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease in children, France, April to June 2020

Isabelle Sermet-Gaudelus 1, 2, 3 Sarah Temmam 4 Christèle Huon 4 Sylvie Behillil 5, 6 Vincent Gajdos 7, 8 Thomas Bigot 9, 4 Thibaut Lurier 10 Delphine Chrétien 4 Marija Backovic 11 Agnès Delaunay-Moisan 12 Flora Donati 5, 6 Mélanie Albert 5, 6 Elsa Foucaud 13 Bettina Mesplées 14 Grégoire Benoist 15 Albert Faye 16 Marc Duval-Arnould 17 Célia Cretolle 3 Marina Charbit 3 Mélodie Aubart 3 Johanne Auriau 3 Mathie Lorrot 18 Dulanjalee Kariyawasam 3 Laura Fertitta 3 Gilles Orliaguet 3 Bénédicte Pigneur 3 Brigitte Bader-Meunier 3 Coralie Briand 14 Vincent Enouf 5, 19, 20, 6 Julie Toubiana 21, 3 Tiffany Guilleminot 22 Sylvie van der Werf 5, 6 Marianne Leruez-Ville 22 Marc Eloit 23, 4, *
Abstract : Background Children have a low rate of COVID-19 and secondary severe multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) but present a high prevalence of symptomatic seasonal coronavirus infections. Aim We tested if prior infections by seasonal coronaviruses (HCoV) NL63, HKU1, 229E or OC43 as assessed by serology, provide cross-protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods We set a cross-sectional observational multicentric study in pauci- or asymptomatic children hospitalised in Paris during the first wave for reasons other than COVID (hospitalised children (HOS), n = 739) plus children presenting with MIS (n = 36). SARS-CoV-2 antibodies directed against the nucleoprotein (N) and S1 and S2 domains of the spike (S) proteins were monitored by an in-house luciferase immunoprecipitation system assay. We randomly selected 69 SARS-CoV-2-seropositive patients (including 15 with MIS) and 115 matched SARS-CoV-2-seronegative patients (controls (CTL)). We measured antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV as evidence for prior corresponding infections and assessed if SARS-CoV-2 prevalence of infection and levels of antibody responses were shaped by prior seasonal coronavirus infections. Results Prevalence of HCoV infections were similar in HOS, MIS and CTL groups. Antibody levels against HCoV were not significantly different in the three groups and were not related to the level of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the HOS and MIS groups. SARS-CoV-2 antibody profiles were different between HOS and MIS children. Conclusion Prior infection by seasonal coronaviruses, as assessed by serology, does not interfere with SARS-CoV-2 infection and related MIS in children.
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Submitted on : Thursday, April 22, 2021 - 4:01:38 PM
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Isabelle Sermet-Gaudelus, Sarah Temmam, Christèle Huon, Sylvie Behillil, Vincent Gajdos, et al.. Prior infection by seasonal coronaviruses, as assessed by serology, does not prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease in children, France, April to June 2020. Eurosurveillance, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 2021, 26 (13), pp.2001782. ⟨10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.13.2001782⟩. ⟨hal-03205795⟩

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