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Why Do Some Rainbow Trout Genotypes Grow Better With a Complete Plant-Based Diet? Transcriptomic and Physiological Analyses on Three Isogenic Lines

Abstract : Within the context of a growing aquaculture production coupled with a plateau of the production in the main components of aquafeeds (fish oil and fishmeal), recent studies have typically focused on replacing these feedstuffs with terrestrial plant ingredients for cultured carnivorous aquatic species, such as rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ). Substitution rates without adverse effects have, however, reached their limit. One potential way forward would be to take advantage of the genetic variability that exists in the salmonid population. However, to date, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for this genetic variability. The aim of the present research was to understand why some genotypes are better able to utilize plant-based diets devoid of marine resources. In this regard, three isogenic lines of rainbow trout (R23h, AB1h, and A22h), with similar growth when fed marine resources-based diets and which differ greatly in their responses to a plant-based diet, were fed with either a complete plant-based diet (V diet) or a marine resources-based diet (M diet) since first-feeding. Fish traits and the hepatic transcriptome of these three genotypes were compared after 5 months of feeding. First, differences in the ability to grow with the V diet observed amongst genotypes was not due to higher feed intake, but instead due to differences in feed efficiency. The comparison of transcriptome profiles revealed 575 (R23h vs. AB1h), 1,770 (R23h vs. A22h), and 2,973 (AB1h vs. A22h) probes differentially expressed amongst the three genotypes when fed the V diet. Interestingly, R23h and AB1h fish, which were the least affected by the V diet, exhibited the highest growth. These results demonstrate that these fish were able to maintain a high level of energy production and protein synthesis. Moreover, these genotypes were also able to activate pathways linked to lipid and cholesterol metabolisms, such as the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Finally, as previously, immunity seems to also play an important role in the ability of fish to use the V diet, and further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which immunity interacts with growth.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, September 22, 2021 - 3:44:11 PM
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Thérèse Callet, Mathilde Dupont-Nivet, Morgane Danion, Christine Burel, Marianne Cluzeaud, et al.. Why Do Some Rainbow Trout Genotypes Grow Better With a Complete Plant-Based Diet? Transcriptomic and Physiological Analyses on Three Isogenic Lines. Frontiers in Physiology, Frontiers, 2021, 12, ⟨10.3389/fphys.2021.732321⟩. ⟨hal-03349230⟩

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