Étude et réalisation de lasers à cavité verticale mono et multi-longueurs d'onde émettant à 1,55 μm

Abstract : This thesis deals with the study and the development of vertical cavity devices in the context of 1.55 μm wavelength division multiplexed for short and middle distance networks. In order to fabricate these structures, we have developed dielectric Bragg mirrors based on amorphous silicon and amorphous silicon nitride materials. The high refractive index difference (1,9), between these two materials, allows reaching the high reflectivity needed for VCSEL lasing operation. Following the mirror development, we realized a VCSEL bonded on to silicon substrate thanks to an AuIn2 metallic alloy formation. This device comprises two dielectric Bragg mirrors and an active region based on InGaAs/InGaAsP quantum well. Improvements based on characterizations and simulations carried out on our VCSEL structures have allowed us to obtain optically pumped devices with a laser emission in continuous wave operation up to 35°C. These encouraging results confirm the reliability of our VCSEL technology process and the good quality of our dielectric Bragg mirror. In order to avoid polarization instabilities emitted by VCSELs, we suggested the use of anisotropic InAs/InP quantum nanostructures, which exhibit a wire-like shape. The study of these nanostructures when placed inside a microcavity has shown that quantum wires are of great interests to provide an anisotropic optical gain and a stable polarization. We developed a tunable VCSEL with a new approach. The principle consists in the introduction of an electro-optic layer based on nano-PDLC (Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal) inside the VCSEL cavity. Nano-PDLC material provides an isotropic refractive index variation thanks to an applied voltage. A first tunable laser emission has been demonstrated for a VCSEL using this electro-optic approach. A tunability as large as 10-nm around 1.55-μm is obtained for an applied voltage of 170V, and the average switching time to scan the full spectral range is close to 30 μs.
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Christophe Levallois. Étude et réalisation de lasers à cavité verticale mono et multi-longueurs d'onde émettant à 1,55 μm. Physique Atomique [physics.atom-ph]. INSA de Rennes, 2006. Français. ⟨tel-00489096⟩

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