L'enseignement des Sciences Economiques et Gestion en BTS, en Guadeloupe - entre prescrits nationaux et contexte socio-économique régional

Abstract : Even if there is a production of educational resources based on examples in Guadeloupe or its environment, the teaching of the economics sciences and management was not considered as an object of scientific study, though it questions fundamental components of the context of this territory like the socioeconomic situation and the regulatory environment. This study concerns the functioning of some French BTS (Brevet de Technicien Supérieur / Advanced Technician Certificate), a professional diploma prepared in two years after the “baccalaureat”, with national programs and evaluation criteria. The successful candidates are supposed to be immediately employable, especially in their local geographical environment, and are prepared for that by professional training sessions in companies. We are interested in a paradox which can be the result of the national definition of the diploma, in reference to the French mainland realities and the local contexts of teaching and of professional integration, far from the socio-economic and regulatory plans. Firstly, we wonder about the point of view of the teachers of those “BTS” about this paradox: does it exist for them? How is it taken into account in their educational action? These questions allowed us to prepare the second part of this study, among students of BTS. Indeed teachers think that the occupational integration is important. We wanted to know how, during and after professional training sessions– privileged moments for modification of the social representations of the student – their professional project became refined. Before doing these inquiries, we drew up a landscape of the place of the BTS in Guadeloupe and chose to focus our study on two BTS, namely assistant manager [deputy manger] and tourism. The first with programs with few references to the environment of the training, contrary to the second. We wanted to ensure a comparison on what we called the anchoring contextual of a training. In the first survey, we conducted semi-structured interview with Guadeloupean teachers of the two BTS mentioned previously. Our objective was to grasp their conceptions and their practices declared about the contextualization of didactics. The teachers, mentioned context effects, by the paradox mentioned previously and declare to take it account in their teachings of the economics sciences and management by contextualizating their practices. However, these contextualizations remain limited, the teachers feeling forced by the national frame of the diploma. For example, in BTS tourism, the gaps between the local context and the French mainland can result from a transformation less accomplished in Guadeloupe (at the time of the survey) towards the “tourismatique” (computing applied to tourism). In BTS assistant manager, these gaps may stay in the specificities of the economic and fiscal context as for example, the different sets of VAT or the existence of the duck dues in Guadeloupe: these adaptations remain limited by fear of disadvantaging the students for the national exam. This demonstrates paradoxes between the professionalizing aim of the BTS and its programs (exams), and thus (partially) unsuitable for the different contexts of the jobs background.  Regarding the students, a longitudinal survey during the two years of training using questionnaire surveys was conducted with a cohort of the two BTS (tourism and deputy manager). The professional training sessions in companies plays a great part in this diploma and is recognized as engine of change of the students’ representations. For this reason, it seems interesting to investigate on how the conception of students evolve, with respect to the aforementioned paradox, during and after professional training sessions in companies. In BTS tourism, this positive representation is stable throughout the training. The students are convinced of the efficiency of professional training sessions in companies: their professional project strengthens but, they also realize that their professional future will not necessarily be in Guadeloupe and/or in the tourism sector. The delicate economic environment seems to play a role in this awareness. In BTS deputy manager, we specially notice a degradation of the representation of the profession of deputy manager during the training, while this training’s choice was realized with conviction. This is probably linked to a better representation of the economic situation of Guadeloupe. In both cases, the context of the professional training sessions in companies modifies the representation of students. Furthermore, according to the teaching staff statements, an unusual droup-out phenomenon - - occurred in the cohort assistant manager during the training. And we wanted to investigate the reasons of this school droup-out from account of these students. This survey approaches the higher education droup-out in Guadeloupe, according to the burden of the vocational high school in this academy. This investigation with these students shows an inadequate training offer for the vocational baccalaureate holders which leads by default course choices and to the ignorance of the requirements of the diploma in terms of vocational highschool. These results reveal that the contextualization of programs and tests should be revised by the institutions to help teachers to better respond to the needs expressed by young people and by the territories. Thus, we could avoid some questions such as : What do we do when we are 20 years old in Guadeloupe and Martinique?
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Elisabeth Odacre. L'enseignement des Sciences Economiques et Gestion en BTS, en Guadeloupe - entre prescrits nationaux et contexte socio-économique régional. Education. Université des Antilles, 2018. Français. ⟨tel-01823339⟩



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