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HAL is a multi-disciplinary open access archive for the deposit and dissemination of scientific research papers, whether they are published or not, and for PhD dissertation. The documents may come from teaching and research institutions in France or abroad, or from public or private research centers.

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Biomolecules essentially fulfill their function through continual recognition of and binding to other molecules. Biomolecular recognition is therefore a phe- nomenon of prominent importance. When the progress of monoclonal antibody technology and genetic engineering allowed biologists to characterize and iso- late an impressive variety of receptor molecules, it was first felt that affinity constants and kinetic rates provided a satisfactory account of receptor-ligand interactions. However, a number of advances that occurred during the last two decades showed that i) the conventional framework was not sufficient to predict the behaviour of biomolecules in many physiologically relevant situations, ii) a number of techniques allowed investigators to dissect biomolecule interactions at the single bond level and obtain new information on the kinetic and mechanical properties of these interactions, iii) new theoretical techniques and the devel- opment of computer simulation as well as the enormous increase of available structural data provided new avenues to relate structural and functional proper- ties. The aim of this introductory chapter is to present a brief outline of these advances and pending issues.
: Advances in neuroscience are underpinned by large, multicenter studies and a mass of heterogeneous datasets. When investigating the relationships between brain anatomy and brain functions under normal and pathological conditions, measurements obtained from a broad range of brain imaging techniques are correlated with the information on each subject's neurologic states, cognitive assessments and behavioral scores derived from questionnaires and tests. The development of ontologies in neuroscience appears to be a valuable way of gathering and handling properly these heterogeneous data - particularly through the use of federated architectures. We recently proposed a multilayer ontology for sharing brain images and regions of interest in neuroimaging. Here, we report on an extension of this ontology to the representation of instruments used to assess brain and cognitive functions and behavior in humans. This extension consists of a 'core' ontology that accounts for the properties shared by all instruments supplemented by 'domain' ontologies that conceptualize standard instruments. We also specify how this core ontology has been refined to build domain ontologies dedicated to widely used instruments and how various scores used in the neurosciences are represented. Lastly, we discuss our design choices, the ontology's limitations and planned extensions aimed at querying and reasoning across distributed data sources.
Extending and modifying his domain of life by artifact production is one of the main characteristics of humankind. From the first hominid, who used a wood stick or a stone for extending his upper limbs and augmenting his gesture strength, to current systems engineers who used technologies for augmenting human cognition, perception and action, extending human body capabilities remains a big issue. From more than fifty years cybernetics, computer and cog-nitive sciences have imposed only one reductionist model of human machine systems: cognitive systems. Inspired by philosophy, behaviorist psychology and the information treatment metaphor, the cognitive system paradigm requires a function view and a functional analysis in human systems design process. Ac-cording that design approach, human have been reduced to his metaphysical and functional properties in a new dualism. Human body requirements have been left to physical ergonomics or "physiology". With multidisciplinary con-vergence, the issues of "human-machine" systems and "human artifacts" evolve. The loss of biological and social boundaries between human organisms and in-teractive and informational physical artifact questions the current engineering methods and ergonomic design of cognitive systems. New developpment of human machine systems for intensive care, human space activities or bio-engineering sytems requires grounding human systems design on a renewed epistemological framework for future human systems model and evidence based "bio-engineering". In that context, reclaiming human factors, augmented human and human machine nature is a necessity
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