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On April 30th 2008, the journal Nature announced that the missing circuit element, postulated thirty-seven years before by Professor Leon O. Chua has been found. Thus, after the capacitor, the resistor and the inductor, the existence of a fourth fundamental element of electronic circuits called "memristor" was established. In order to point out the importance of such a discovery, the aim of this article is first to propose an overview of the manner with which the three others have been invented during the past centuries. Then, a comparison between the main properties of the singing arc, i.e. a forerunner device of the triode used in Wireless Telegraphy, and that of the memristor will enable to state that the singing arc could be considered as the oldest memristor.
We consider a classical system of n charged particles in an external confining potential, in any dimension larger than 2. The particles interact via pairwise repulsive Coulomb forces and the coupling parameter is of order 1/n (mean-field scaling). By a suitable splitting of the Hamiltonian, we extract the next to leading order term in the ground state energy, beyond the mean-field limit. We show that this next order term, which characterizes the fluctuations of the system, is governed by a new ''renormalized energy'' functional providing a way to compute the total Coulomb energy of a jellium (i.e. an infinite set of point charges screened by a uniform neutralizing background), in any dimension. The renormalization that cuts out the infinite part of the energy is achieved by smearing out the point charges at a small scale, as in Onsager's lemma. We obtain consequences for the statistical mechanics of the Coulomb gas: next to leading order asymptotic expansion of the free energy or partition function, characterizations of the Gibbs measures, estimates on the local charge fluctuations and factorization estimates for reduced densities. This extends results of Sandier and Serfaty to dimension higher than two by an alternative approach.
A new approach called Flow Curvature Method has been recently developed in a book entitled Differential Geometry Applied to Dynamical Systems. It consists in considering the trajectory curve, integral of any n-dimensional dynamical system as a curve in Euclidean n-space that enables to analytically compute the curvature of the trajectory - or the flow. Hence, it has been stated on the one hand that the location of the points where the curvature of the flow vanishes defines a manifold called flow curvature manifold and on the other hand that such a manifold associated with any n-dimensional dynamical system directly provides its slow manifold analytical equation the invariance of which has been proved according to Darboux theory. The Flow Curvature Method has been already applied to many types of autonomous dynamical systems either singularly perturbed such as Van der Pol Model, FitzHugh-Nagumo Model, Chua's Model, ...) or non-singularly perturbed such as Pikovskii-Rabinovich-Trakhtengerts Model, Rikitake Model, Lorenz Model,... More- over, it has been also applied to non-autonomous dynamical systems such as the Forced Van der Pol Model. In this article it will be used for the first time to analytically compute the slow invariant manifold analytical equation of the four-dimensional Unforced and Forced Heartbeat Model. Its slow invariant manifold equation which can be considered as a "state equation" linking all variables could then be used in heart prediction and control according to the strong correspondence between the model and the physiological cardiovascular system behavior.
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