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HAL is a multi-disciplinary open access archive for the deposit and dissemination of scientific research papers, whether they are published or not, and for PhD dissertation. The documents may come from teaching and research institutions in France or abroad, or from public or private research centers.

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Finland has the best mean sciences scores among the OECD countries while France is in the OECD average (PISA 2006). Nevertheless, when measuring interactions between knowledge and values in teachers' conceptions, the comparison between the two countries shows surprising results. In the context of the European research project Biohead-Citizen, in-service and pre-service teachers filled out a questionnaire including 31 questions related to the genetic determinism of human performances. The samples (732 in France, 306 in Finland) comprised Primary School teachers and Secondary School Biology and Language teachers. The answers to the questions dealing with only scientific knowledge, or with only social values, did not differ with the country. Nevertheless, there are very significant differences for the interactions between knowledge and values mainly related to innatism: for instance, Finnish teachers more agree with the proposition "there are genetic factors in parents that predispose their children to be good in school" (or "good violinists"); or with "It is for biological reasons that women more often than men take care of housekeeping". Our results are analysed with different statistical tests including multivariate analyses. They are then discussed, taking into account the respective content of school textbooks in the two countries.
Our work is the first international comparison of teachers' conceptions on Evolution / Creation, using several questions on precise and large samples to identify the importance of creationist ideas in the context of their national, religious, economic, cultural and political backgrounds. This research concerns 19 countries: 13 in Europe, 5 in Africa and one in Middle East: 7050 teachers filled out a questionnaire including several questions on Evolution vs. Creation. Half of them are in-service teachers, the other being at the last year of University before teaching. They are teaching in Primary Schools as well as in Secondary Schools (Biology, or Language). The percentages of teachers' radical creationist conceptions differ more from one country to another (from 2% to 90%) than among religions inside each country. There are some, but not so important, differences between Biology teachers and other teachers. The teachers' conceptions also differ with the level of teacher training: more they are instructed (in any matter), more they are evolutionist.
Esenbeckia leiocarpa, a wide spread native Brazilian tree, was reported recently to possess anti-inflammatory effects in vivo, but the mechanisms involved are still not fully understood and its role in neutrophils is poorly documented. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) and an alkaloid-enriched (Alk) fraction obtained from Esenbeckia leiocarpa bark on human neutrophils by investigating the effect of each fraction alone or in a mixture with classical neutrophil agonists. CHE inhibited intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production but increased the extracellular superoxide (O2-) production, while Alk increased the former and also slightly increased O2- production. We found that CHE and Alk also induced phagocytosis accompanied by Syk activation, adhesion and degranulation. However, neither CHE nor Alk potentiated the effect of classical neutrophil agonists, namely the cytokines GM-CSF for phagocytosis and TNF-α for adhesion or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) for degranulation. In addition, based on catalase treatment, CHE and Alk induced neutrophil apoptosis by a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-dependent mechanism. Since the elimination of apoptotic neutrophils by professional phagocytes is important for the resolution of inflammation, the ability of CHE and Alk to induce neutrophil apoptosis has to be considered as one possible mechanism associated with the anti-inflammatory activity of these fractions previously reported in vivo.
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