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L'archive ouverte pluridisciplinaire HAL, est destinée au dépôt et à la diffusion d'articles scientifiques de niveau recherche, publiés ou non, et de thèses, émanant des établissements d'enseignement et de recherche français ou étrangers, des laboratoires publics ou privés.

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Background: The phytohormone auxin is involved in a wide range of developmental processes and auxin signaling is known to modulate the expression of target genes via two types of transcriptional regulators, namely, Aux/IAA and Auxin Response Factors (ARF). ARFs play a major role in transcriptional activation or repression through direct binding to the promoter of auxin-responsive genes. The present study aims at gaining better insight on distinctive structural and functional features among ARF proteins. Results: Building on the most updated tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) reference genome sequence, a comprehensive set of ARF genes was identified, extending the total number of family members to 22. Upon correction of structural annotation inconsistencies, renaming the tomato ARF family members provided a consensus nomenclature for all ARF genes across plant species. In silico search predicted the presence of putative target site for small interfering RNAs within twelve Sl-ARFs while sequence analysis of the 59-leader sequences revealed the presence of potential small uORF regulatory elements. Functional characterization carried out by transactivation assay partitioned tomato ARFs into repressors and activators of auxin-dependent gene transcription. Expression studies identified tomato ARFs potentially involved in the fruit set process. Genome-wide expression profiling using RNA-seq revealed that at least one third of the gene family members display alternative splicing mode of regulation during the flower to fruit transition. Moreover, the regulation of several tomato ARF genes by both ethylene and auxin, suggests their potential contribution to the convergence mechanism between the signaling pathways of these two hormones. Conclusion: All together, the data bring new insight on the complexity of the expression control of Sl-ARF genes at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels supporting the hypothesis that these transcriptional mediators might represent one of the main components that enable auxin to regulate a wide range of physiological processes in a highly specific and coordinated manner.
Earthworms are target organisms both for scientists studying the biological component of soils and for farmers concerned with monitoring the quality of their soils. Different expellants are used to extract earthworms from the soil but differences in chemical properties and efficiency between commercial mustard and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) solutions remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to compare (i) the concentration of irritating product (allyl isothiocyanate AITC) in two expellant solutions (diluted mustard or AITC solution) and (ii) their efficiency in extracting earthworms from the soil. AITC concentration was analyzed according to a new method, based on AITC solvent extraction and HPLC quantification, in one commercial mustard brand to assess its variability within and between batches of jars. According to mustard spiking with AITC standard solution, extraction recovery was estimated as 98 ± 2%. Earthworm field data were collected in spring 2012 in 22 cultivated fields located in east Île-de-France, comparing pure AITC to commercial mustard solutions. Species diversity, abundance and biomass of earthworms per plot were measured. We showed that AITC concentration in commercial mustard varied according to the use by date but not according to the batch. We thus recommend using the freshest mustard available from the same batch. Moreover, AITC solution was found to be about four times more concentrated in AITC than the commercial mustard solution. Despite this result, no significant differences were found in the efficiency of commercial mustard or AITC solutions to bring earthworms to the soil surface in terms of abundance, biomass or diversity. We thus discuss the advantage and drawbacks of using both expellants in the field.
The aim of this article is to lay out a series of issues of current concern to researchers in the social sciences, regarding the impact of climate change on the vine and wine sector. The challenge lies in evaluating the cost of transition from one system to another through an integration of the direct and indirect effects of climate change. This adaptation, whether reactive or anticipatory, combines technical and organisational innovations with localisation strategies and institutional changes. Such actions could either try to maintain the existing situation as much as possible or could try to bifurcate towards deep changes, entailing very different costs. Given the multitude of uncertainties at play, not to mention the necessity for continuous adaptation to an ever-changing climate, these costs are hard to quantify. This article will illustrate two sets of measures for wine cultivation adaptation: 'no regrets' measures, which offer immediate benefits, and 'reversible and flexible' measures, which limit the inertia of wine-cultivating systems. In spite of the challenges, what stands out is the evident re-enforcement resulting from the collaboration between researchers and political and economic actors. In the field of wine cultivation, these collaborations can follow two paths: the study of the diversity of existing wine-growing systems and genetic resources or the possibility of more radical technological and social experimentation.
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