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 Study of a dual-mode array integrated in a multi-element transducer for imaging and therapy of prostate cancerThe development of endocavitary dual-mode probes is essential for the accurate treatment of many deep seated cancers which require a high imaging resolution and the capacity to selectively treat focal areas in the region of interest. The MULTIP project is aimed at using state-of-art piezoelectric technologies to design dual-mode ultrasonic probes for cancer-foci treatment and monitoring. In order to allow an efficient surgery planning, the technical study has been accompanied by a volume processing study permitting the design of the ultrasonic imaging/therapy process based on high-resolutionhigh-quality MRI images. Several prototypes were designed based on a simulation study and implemented: 1) two successive wide-band dual-mode transducer allowing imaging at high resolution (6 MHz) on a wide field of view, and therapy at 3 MHz with a good transduction efficiency (48% and 70%); 2) a therapy-only transducer matrix adapted to the desired curvature with a high transduction efficiency (70%). Finally, a registration study of MRI volumes on ultrasound volumes has shown that, because of the texture of the ultrasound images, it is more efficient to search at registering the surfaces of the volumes once they have been segmented in each modality, rather than trying to register the two data volumes directly. Sociodemographic characteristics of mother's population and risk of preterm birth in Chile.BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is a global problem in Perinatal and infant Health. Currently is gaining a growing attention. Rates of preterm birth have increased in most countries, producing a dramatic impact on public health. Factors of diverse nature have been associated to these trends.In Chile, preterm birth has increased since 90. Simultaneously, the advanced demographic transition has modified the characteristics of woman population related to maternity.The principal objective of this study is to analyze some sociodemographic characteristics of the maternal population over time, and their possible association to rates of preterm birth. The second aim is to identify groups of mothers at high risk of having a preterm child. METHODS: This population-based study examined all liveborn singletons in Chile from 1991 to 2008; divided in three periods. Preterm birth rates were measured as % births <37 weeks of gestation.Logistic regression assessed the risk of preterm birth associated with mother's age, parity, and marital status, expressed as crude and adjusted odds ratios. RESULTS: Over time, rates of preterm birth increased in overall population, especially during the third period (2001--2008). In the same time, characteristics of maternal population changed: significant increase of extreme reproductive ages, significant decrease in parity and increase in mothers living without a partner.Risk of preterm birth remained higher in groups of mothers: < 18 and >38 years of age; without a partner; primiparas and grandmultiparas. However, global increase in preterm birth was not explained by the modification of socio demographics characteristics of maternal population. CONCLUSIONS: Some socio demographic characteristics remained associated with preterm birth over time. These associations allowed identifying five groups of mothers at higher risk to have a preterm child in the population.Increase in overall preterm birth affected all women, even those considered at "low sociodemographic risk" and the contribution of more recent period (2001--2008) to this increase is greater.Then, studied factors couldn't explain the increase in preterm birth. Further research will have to consider other factors affecting maternal population that could explain the observed trend of preterm birth. Asympotic behavior of the total length of external branches for Beta-coalescentsWe consider a ${\Lambda}$-coalescent and we study the asymptotic behavior of the total length $L^{(n)}_{ext}$ of the external branches of the associated $n$-coalescent. For Kingman coalescent, i.e. ${\Lambda}={\delta}_0$, the result is well known and is useful, together with the total length $L^{(n)}$, for Fu and Li's test of neutrality of mutations% under the infinite sites model asumption . For a large family of measures ${\Lambda}$, including Beta$(2-{\alpha},{\alpha})$ with $0<\alpha<1$, M{ö}hle has proved asymptotics of $L^{(n)}_{ext}$. Here we consider the case when the measure ${\Lambda}$ is Beta$(2-{\alpha},{\alpha})$, with $1<\alpha<2$. We prove that $n^{{\alpha}-2}L^{(n)}_{ext}$ converges in $L^2$ to $\alpha(\alpha-1)\Gamma(\alpha)$. As a consequence, we get that $L^{(n)}_{ext}/L^{(n)}$ converges in probability to $2-\alpha$. To prove the asymptotics of $L^{(n)}_{ext}$, we use a recursive construction of the $n$-coalescent by adding individuals one by one. Asymptotics of the distribution of $d$ normalized external branch lengths and a related moment result are also given.
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